Table 1

GHS Index indicator variables selected for model inclusion based on their relationship with excess mortality per capita over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic

(1) Prevention(1.6) Immunisation
(2) Detection and reporting(2.3) Epidemiology workforce
(2.4) OneHealth data integration
(3) Rapid response(3.2) Exercising response plans
(3.7) Trade and travel restrictions
(4) Health system(4.3) Healthcare access
(5) Compliance with international norms(5.1) IHR reporting compliance and disaster risk reduction
(5.3) International commitments
(5.4) WHO’s JEE and PVS
(5.6) Commitment to sharing of genetic and biological data and specimens
(6) Risk environment(6.1) Political and security risk
(6.4) Environmental risks
  • These analyses would need to be reperformed for other health security events to determine which GHS Index indicators are most salient within the context of those events.

  • GHS, Global Health Security; IHR, International Health Regulations; JEE, Joint External Evaluation; PVS, Performance of Veterinary Services.