Table 2

Characteristics of the engagement process of included papers including the method, aspects of outbreak management, impact, scale and evaluation. To classify the aspects of outbreak management in which participants are engaged, the risk analysis framework was used (figure 1)

AuthorMethodSubject of engagementAspect of risk analysis frameworkOutcomes for practice or policyScaleEvaluation with participants
De Kraaij et al
Deliberative forumImplementation of control measuresRisk managementSome recommendations were adopted in the ‘Pre-pandemic Planning Guidance’ of the Centre for Disease Control.NationalYes, the understanding of pandemic influenza of citizens increased significantly.
Andersson et al36Randomised controlled trial (RCT)Prevention strategiesRisk managementMean percentage of recent dengue infection was lower in the intervention group (11.3%) compared with control (14.6%). Further research is necessary on how to integrate PE in the long run.CommunityNA
McNaughton et al37Interviews, Focus group discussions (FGDs) and surveysControl strategyRisk managementStrategy was implemented in seven different field sites in Australia (according to McNaughton et al 201438).CommunityNA
McNaughton et al
Surveys, interviews, observations, meetings and workshopsControl strategyRisk managementStudied strategy was approved for open field release by the Vietnamese government.CommunityNA
Sanchez et al39Document analysis, interviews and working groupsCommunication and community mobilisation strategiesRisk management and communicationOutcomes were seen as a foundation for further exploration of these practices.CommunityNA
Alonge et al40Interviews and group meetingsCommunity resilience and outbreak responseRisk managementIdentification of factors that constitute community resilience. No further recommendations for future efforts were done.CommunityNA
Brittain et al
FGDsMessaging and channels for disseminating informationRisk communicationA culturally relevant communication campaign was created and directly implemented.CommunityNA
Braunack-Mayer et al42Deliberative forumAllocation of scarce resources and considerations of control measuresRisk managementStudy itself was part of FluViews. Extensive implications for policy makers were discussed. However, outcomes were labelled as new and a more research was needed.NationalYes, but no results were discussed.
Charania et al
Interviews and group meetingsCommunity pandemic planRisk management and communicationPandemic plans for three communities, to use as a foundation for improved pandemic response.CommunityNA
Fain et al
FGDs and surveysStrategies to facilitate access to antiviral medications and public communicationRisk management and communicationOutcomes were used (at the moment of writing) by the CDC to inform development of contingency plans.NationalYes, most participants agreed with having productive discussions and idea sharing, and a better understanding of the issue.
Massey et al
Workshops, interviews and FGDs.Containment strategiesRisk management and communicationStrategy and its recommendations can be used to develop effective policy in the future together with communities.CommunityNA
Biddison et al
Deliberative forumAllocation of scarce mechanical ventilatorsRisk managementAn allocation framework which can be used to increase acceptability of outbreak response. No recommendations for future efforts or actual use in practice was given.NationalNA
Rogers et al
Deliberative forumCommunication frameworkRisk communicationRecommendations were made, but the use of these recommendations in practice or policy after the study were unclear.NationalNA
  • PE, public engagement.