Table 2

Thematic network analysis of basic, organising and global themes

Global themes
Mechanisms
Organising themes
Contextual triggers
Basic themes
How context triggers mechanisms
Denial
cognitive
Negative perceptionsDenial can be a coping mechanism to adjust to negative social perception of HIV.
Staying in denial can delay treatment and encourage harmful drug use.
Fear
affective
Lack of awarenessFear appears to be caused by lack of societal awareness of HIV and ART.
MisinformationFear can be triggered as a result of misinformation.
Despair
affective
Perceived stigmaDespair appears to be felt in response to perceived stigma against HIV status.
Newly diagnosed patients can experience stronger despair, which can cause depression.
Enacted discriminationDespair can be an emotional response to acts of discrimination by the society.
Discrimination by families and medical society can produce stronger despair.
Economic insecurityDespair can be an emotional response to economic insecurity.
Social supportDespair appears to be felt when social support is lacking.
Supportive family and services can moderate feelings of despair.
  • ART, antiretroviral therapy.