Table 2

Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features of confirmed COVID-19 cases during the two waves in Nigeria

VariableWave 1 (n=66 237)Wave 2 (n=91 664)P value
Sociodemographic characteristics
Mean (SD) age, years(n=62 915)(n=88 435)0.2178*
33.57 (15.28)37.67 (16.30)
Age group, years<0.001†
 0–4886 (1.34)1424 (1.55)
 5–132395 (3.62)3560 (3.88)
 14–203987 (6.02)6638 (7.24)
 21–3013 597 (20.53)20 184 (22.02)
 31–4017 691 (26.71)21 689 (23.67)
 41–5012 232 (18.47)16 121 (17.59)
 51–607596 (11.47)10 870 (11.86)
 61–703064 (4.63)5091 (5.56)
 71–801116 (1.68)2132 (2.33)
 >80351 (0.53)726 (0.79)
 Missing3322 (5.02)3229 (3.50)
Sex<0.001†
 Female23 609 (35.64)38 403 (41.90)
 Male41 434 (62.55)52 754 (57.56)
 Missing1194 (1.80)487 (0.53)
Residential setting<0.001†
 Rural3825 (5.77)5192 (5.67)
 Urban25 807 (38.96)26 510 (28.93)
 Missing36 605 (55.26)59 942 (65.41)
Education completed<0.001†
 None949 (1.43)911 (0.99)
 Nursery180 (0.27)123 (0.13)
 Primary1201 (1.81)1285 (1.40)
 Secondary5673 (8.56)4814 (5.25)
 Tertiary15 881 (23.98)18 449 (20.13)
 Alternative (eg, Almajiranci)3102 (4.68)1948 (2.13)
 Missing39 251 (59.26)64 114 (69.96)
Current occupation<0.001†
 Pupil/student4419 (6.67)4829 (5.27)
 Housewife/child1096 (1.65)1373 (1.50)
 Trader/business2727 (4.12)2342 (2.56)
 Farmer/miner718 (1.08)1007 (1.10)
 Healthcare worker4973 (7.51)2648 (2.89)
 Animal-related work70 (0.11)57 (0.06)
 Transporter142 (0.21)48 (0.05)
 Religious leader127 (0.19)99 (0.11)
 Traditional leader22 (0.03)36 (0.04)
 Other24 294 (36.68)48 150 (52.54)
 Missing27 649 (41.74)31 055 (33.89)
Quarantine location<0.001†
 None5464 (8.25)8230 (8.98)
 Formal institution1912 (2.89)205 (0.22)
 Home6116 (9.23)3757 (4.10)
 Missing52 745 (79.63)79 452 (86.70)
Travel history
 No38 425 (58.01)30 008 (32.74)
 Yes2495 (3.77)901 (0.98)
 Missing25 317 (38.22)60 735 (66.27)
Hospitalisation<0.001†
 No31 197 (47.10)49 589 (54.11)
 Yes6885 (10.39)1250 (1.36)
 Missing28 155 (42.51)40 805 (44.53)
Symptomatic status<0.001†
 Asymptomatic49 652 (74.96)73 038 (79.70)
 Symptomatic16 585 (25.04)18 606 (20.30)
  • *P value for t-test.

  • †P value for χ2 test.