Table 2

Comparison of anthropometrics between gender and ethnicity groups

Studies, countryComparison of anthropometric measurements
Between gendersBetween ethnicitiesTo other populations/panels
Gross and Horstman, USA49♀smaller dimensions for 11/12 FDN/AComparable to US Air Force population
Oestenstad et al, USA50N/ANo comparison made due to small sample sizeSkewed distribution relative to LANL panel
Oestenstad and Perkins, USA27♀smaller dimensionsNo comparison made due to small sample sizeComparable to previous studies and US Air Force population
Brazile et al,
♀smaller dimensions for 12/14 FD except binocular and NRBSignificant difference between ethnic groups except for FLComparable to previous studies and US Air Force population
Han, South Korea52♀smaller dimensions separately screwed distribution of FD but with significant overlapN/AN/A
Han and Choi, South Korea29♀smaller dimensions for all 10 FDN/AN/A
Kim et al, South Kore53♀smaller dimensions for 11/12 FD except for NRBN/AComparable to Korean cohorts. Different (smaller and wider faces) to American cohorts
Zhuang et al, USA54♀ smaller dimension for 9/12 measurements except LW, NRB, NPN/AN/A
Oestenstad et al, USA55♀smaller dimensions for 10/12 FD except LFL and NLN/AComparable to previous studies
Wilkinson et al, Australia59N/AFacial characteristics were strongly associated with racial groupN/A
Spies et al, South Africa61♀smaller and narrower dimensionsComparison not madeScrewed distribution relative to LANL panel. Mean FD comparable to Korean and American cohorts but male FD different (smaller and wider) from American cohort
Yu et al, China63♀smaller dimensionsN/AComparable to Chinese cohort. Different (smaller and wider) to American cohorts
Kim et al, South Korea65♀smaller LW onlyN/AN/A
Manganyi et al, South Africa28♀smaller dimensionsAsian♀: smaller dimensions
African ♂: greater NRB
Lin and Chen, Taiwan66♀smaller dimensions separately screwed distribution of FDN/AScrewed distribution relative to NIOSH panel. Difference to American cohorts (smaller)
Honarbakhsh et al, Iran67N/AN/ASignificant proportion outside RFTP. Different to South African, Korean and American cohorts (smaller FL and FW)
Fakherpour et al, Iran71FD reported as similar but no comparison clearly reportedN/ASkewed distribution relative to panel and significant proportion outside NIOSH RFTP
De‐Yñigo‐Mojado et al, Spain73♀smaller dimensionsN/AN/A
  • ♀=female; ♂=male.

  • FD, facial dimensions; FL, face length; FW, face width; LANL, Los Alamos National Laboratory; LFL, lower face length; LW, lip width; N/A, not available/assessed or not reported; NIOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; NL, nose length; NP, nose protrusion; NRB, nasal root breadth; RFTP, respirator fit test panel.