Table 1

Characteristics of 58 included studies by continent

First authorCountryStudy designRecruitment windowStudy size (total n)SettingEthnic groupsEthnicity based onReported on COVID-19 outcome
InfectionHospita-lisationSevere diseaseICU admissionDeath
Mehta NUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 202018 472HospitalWhite, Black, OtherNot reported*
Zachariah PUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 202050HospitalWhite, HispanicFrom medical records*
Haimovich ADUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20202182HospitalNot Hispanic or Latino, Hispanic or Latino/White, Black or African AmericanNot reported*‡
Van Gerwen MUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20203703General populationNon-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Other, UnknownNot reported
Maeda TUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 2020224HospitalWhite, Black, Asian, OtherNot reported*
Mikami TUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20206493General populationWhite, African-American, Asian, OtherFrom medical records*
Singer AJUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20204404General populationWhite, Black, Asian, Other, Unknown, HispanicFrom medical records**
McCullough SAUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020756HospitalWhite, Black, Asian, Other, Not specifiedFrom medical records*†
Price CCUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 2020239HospitalAfrican-American, Hispanic, White, OtherDetermined by physician*
Golestaneh LUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020505 992HospitalNon-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, OtherSelf-reported**
Palaiodimos LUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 2020200HospitalAfrican-American, HispanicFrom medical records
Musoke NUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–May 2020355HospitalAfrican-American, Caucasian, Hispanic, OtherFrom medical records§
Price-Haywood EGUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20203626HospitalWhite Non-Hispanic, Black Non-HispanicSelf-reported*‡§**‡§
Kim LUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–May 20202490HospitalNon-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Other, UnknownFrom medical records*†§*†§
Chamie GUSA (NA)Cross-sectionalApril 2020–April 20203871General populationWhite, Hispanic/Latinx, Asian/Pacific Islander, OtherNot reported*
McCarty TRUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020379HospitalWhite, Black, LatinxSelf-reported
Bhargava AUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020197HospitalWhite, BlackFrom medical records*
Peterson EUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020355HospitalAfrican-American, Caucasian, OthersNot reported§
Shah SJUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–March 2020316HospitalWhite, Black or African-American, Asian, Hispanic or LatinoFrom medical records*
Kalyanaraman MRUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 202022 176General populationBlack, Hispanic, White, Asian or Pacific Islander, OtherNot reported***
Gu TUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20205698General populationWhite, Black, Other, UnknownSelf-reported*
Mendy AUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–May 2020689HospitalNon-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, OtherSelf-reported
Chang TSUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–June 202026 602HospitalWhite or Caucasian, Black or African-American, Asian, American-Indian or Alaska-Native, Native-Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Other, UnknownSelf-reported***
Dublin SUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–June 2020322 044HospitalNon-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic Asian, Non-Hispanic Mixed/Other, HispanicNot reported§§
McPadden JUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20207995HospitalAmerican Indian, Asian, Black/African-American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, WhiteFrom medical records
Crouse AUSA (NA)Cross-sectionalFebruary 2020–June 202025 326General populationAfrican-American, White, OtherNot reported*
Costa Monteiro ACUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020112HospitalWhite, Latinx, Asian, Black, OtherNot reported
Ingraham NEUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–August 20205577HospitalWhite, Black, Asian, Hispanic, Declined to report, OtherFrom medical records
Gottlieb MUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyJanuary 2020–June 20208673General populationWhite, African American, Asian, Other, UnknownFrom medical records*
Petrilli CM et al25USA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20205279HospitalNon-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic African-American, Asian, Hispanic, Other/multiracial, UnknownFrom medical records*†§
Argenziano MGUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20201000HospitalAsian, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Other, WhiteFrom medical records*
McGuinness GUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyJanuary 2020–June 2020601General populationNon–Hispanic, Hispanic, UnknownNot reported*
Rozenfeld YUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–April 202034 503General populationWhite, American Indian/Alaska native, Asian, Black/African-American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Unknown, Other, HispanicFrom medical records
Harrison SLUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyJanuary 2020–May 202031 461General populationWhite, Black/African American, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, UnknownNot reported
Adegunsoye AUSA (NA)Cross-sectionalJanuary 2020–April 20204413General populationBlack, White, Asian/Mideast Indian, American Indian/Alaska native, Multiracial, Native Hawaiian, Other, Hispanic or Latino, Not Hispanic or LatinoSelf-reported*†§
Gold JAWUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 2020305HospitalBlack, OtherDetermined by physician**
Killerby MEUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020531HospitalWhite, Black, Other, MissingNot reported
Tenforde MWUSA (NA)Cross-sectionalMarch 2020–May 2020350General populationWhite Non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, Hispanic, Other Non-Hispanic, UnknownSelf-reported*
Mani VRUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020184HospitalAfrican-American, Hispanic, AsianFrom medical records*
Chilimuri SUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020375HospitalBlack, Hispanic, OtherFrom medical records*
Gavin WUSA (NA)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 2020140HospitalAfrican-American, White, Asian, Hispanic, Not recordedNot reported**
Baqui PBrazil (SA)Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–May 20207371HospitalWhite, Pardo, Black, East-Asian, IndigenousSelf-reported**
Soares RCMBrazil (SA)Cross-sectionalFebruary 2020–June 202010 713General populationWhite, Black/multiracial, Asian/Indigenous/unknownFrom medical records**
Ciceri FItaly (EU))Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–March 2020410HospitalEuropean, Asian, HispanicNot reported*
Berenguer JSpain (EU)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 20203987HospitalArab, Asian, Black, Latin American, White, OtherFrom medical records*
Martos Pérez FSpain (EU)Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–April 202096HospitalSpain (Malaga), Spain (other province), Abroad (EC), Abroad (non-EC)Not reported*
Lassale CUK (EU)Prospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020528 494HospitalBlack, Asian, Other, WhiteSelf-reported*
Martin CAUK (EU)Cross-sectionalMarch 2020–April 20204051General populationWhite Caucasian, South Asian, BlackSelf-reported
de Lusignan SUK (EU)Cross-sectionalJanuary 2020–April 20203802General populationWhite, Asian, Black, Mixed, OtherNot reported†§
Perez-Guzman PNUK (EU)Retrospective cohort studyFebruary 2020–April 2020614HospitalWhite, Black, Asian, Other, MissingFrom medical records*†
Sapey EUK (EU)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 20202217HospitalWhite, Mixed/Multiracial, South-Asian/South-Asian British, Black/African-Caribbean/Black-British, Other, UnknownSelf-reported*
Hippisley-Cox JUK (EU)Prospective cohort studyJanuary 2020–April 20208 275 949GP cohortWhite/not recorded, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Other Asian, Caribbean, Black-African, Chinese, OtherNot reported**
Niedzwiedz C LUK (EU)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–May 20202658General populationWhite British, White Irish, White Other, Mixed, South Asian, Black, Chinese, OtherSelf-reported*‡§
Brill SEUK (EU)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–April 2020410HospitalAsian, Black, White, Other, UnknownFrom medical records*
Aldridge RWUK (EU)Case–control studyMarch 2020–April 202016 272HospitalAsian, Black, Mixed, Other, WhiteFrom medical records
Corbett RWUK (EU)Retrospective cohort studyMarch 2020–March 20201530General populationAsian, White, Black, UnknownNot reported
Sun YSingapore (AS)Case–control studyJanuary 2020–February 2020788HospitalChinese, Malay, Indian, OthersNot reported*
Bruminhent JThailand (AS)Cross-sectionalMarch 2020–April 2020403General populationThai ethnicity, Non-Thai ethnicityFrom medical records*
  • Reported outcomes

  • List of references for included studies is available in online supplementary appendix table 1.

  • *unadjusted numbers or ORs

  • †age-adjusted ORs

  • ‡age and sex-adjusted ORs

  • §ORs adjusted for multiple factors (all multivariably adjusted odds ratios and adjustment factors are summarised in online supplemental appendix table 2).

  • AS, Asia; EU, Europe; ICU, intensive care unit; NA, North America; SA, South America.