Table 3

Characteristics of included observational studies

Study IDStudy settingDates of data collectionPopulationFood environment characteristic/sOutcome
Cohort studies
Seto, 202071Kunming, China, NeighbourhoodNot reported12 adults aged 18–31 (mean age 24.6). With average BMI of 21.0. 17% with overweight.Acc D
Wang, 201234China, Neighbourhood2004 and 2006185 children aged 6%–18. 51% female.Av N
Xu, 2013359 provinces, China, Neighbourhood2000–200913 993 male and 15 125 female person-years. Mean age ranged between 44 and 51 over the period 2000–2006.Av H
Case–control studies
Setiyaningsih, 201936Surakarta, Indonesia, SchoolApril 2019225 children from 15 schools including 75 with obesity and 150 normal weight.Av H
Cross-sectional studies
Alves, 201976Florianopolis, Brazil, NeighbourhoodSeptember 2012–June 20132484 children aged 7–14 (mean age 10.4). 56.5% female. 66.8% normal weight.AccD
Assis, 201950Juiz de Fora, Brazil, NeighbourhoodJuly 2011– December 2021661 children aged 7–14 (median age 11). 51.7% female.AvH
Azeredo, 201689Brazil; School2012109104 students majority aged 11%–14. 52.2% female.AvD
Backes, 201951Sao Leopoldo, Brazil, Neighbourhood20151096 women aged 20–69 years. 33.1% with obesity.AvH
Barrera, 201684Cuernavaca and Guadalajara, Mexico, SchoolOctober 2012–March 2013725 children aged 9–11 (median age 10). 56.8% female. 24.8% with overweight and 20.7% with obesity.AvH
Bekker, 201730Bloemfontein, South Africa, SchoolNot reported257 students aged 7–14 took part in the quantitative data collection. 61.1% female.AvD
Camargo, 201962Campinas, Brazil, NeighbourhoodJuly 2014– December 2014Residents aged 18+ of two low-income areas.AvH
Charoenbut, 201829Samutprakarn province, Thailand, WorkplaceMarch–June 2011.924 workers from 26 industrial factories. 39.1% aged 31%–40. 56.5% female.Av, M&R, DD
Chor, 2016726 cities, Brazil, NeighbourhoodAugust 2008– December 201014749 civil servants at teaching and research institutions aged 35–74 (median age 51 years). 54.4% women.AccD
Corrêa, 201852Florianopolis, Brazil, NeighbourhoodSeptember 2012–June 20132195 children aged 7%–14. 47.7% female. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.0% for girls, 37.6% for boys.AvH
Cunningham-Myrie, 202053Jamaica, Neighbourhood20082529 participants in a nationally representative survey, aged 18–74 (Mean age of men=37.0 years, mean age of women=36.7 years). 68.5% female. Mean BMI for women 28.4. Mean BMI for men 24.8.Av; AccH
Curioni, 202037Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Neighbourhood2012–132032 civil servants of a university. 46% aged 45–54 years. 60% women.AvD
da Silva, 201966Minas Gerais, Brazil; NeighbourhoodJune 2012–July 2016965 women and men aged 20–59 years old (mean age: 34.2). 55.2% female. 13.8% with obesity.AvH
Dake, 201654Accra, Ghana, Neighbourhood2011–2013657 participants (mean age 31.5). 54.0% female. 23.29% with overweight, 18.6% with obesity.AvH
Darfour-Oduro, 20209124 countries: Malawi, Jordan, Egypt, Maldives, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Fiji, Malaysia, Mongolia, Indonesia, Phillippines, Thailand, Benin, Mauritania, Sudan, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syrian Arab Republic, Pakistan, Argentina, Honduras, Tonga, School2004–201389843 children aged 13–17.M&RD
de Freitas, 201960Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood20132810 participants, majority aged 30–59 (54.1%). 88.4% female. Mean BMI 27.8. The majority with overweight (62.6%).Av; V/P; Price; M&RH
Duran, 201538Sao Paulo, Brazil, Neighbourhood2010–20111842 adults aged 20–59 (mean age 36.5). 53% female.Av; Acc; PriceD
Fernandes, 201731Ghana, School2013–20144258 children aged 5–17 years. 46.9% female.AvD
Gonçalves, 201987Brazil, School2013–201473399 children aged 12–17 years (mean age 14.4 years) from 1247 schools.Av; V/PH
Goryakin, 201539Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, Neighbourhood2010–201117998 adults aged 18–95 years.Av; Acc; M&RD
Guo, 20186412 provinces, China, neighbourhood2011–20131416 children aged 7–17.Av; M&RH
Guo, 201965China, Neighbourhood2000–20134803 children aged 7–17.Av; M&RH
Hall, 202055China, NeighbourhoodNovember 2016–August 20171388 women aged 18–67 (median age 41). Mean BMI 24.5% and 64.0% with overweight or obesity.AvH
Hua, 201463Macau, China, Neighbourhood2011575 children aged 13–18 from one high school. Mean BMI 21.1.AvH
Jaime, 201140Sao Paulo, Brazil, Neighbourhood20032122 adults aged 18+.AvH, D
Kelly, 201470Thailand, Neighbourhood20121516 students enrolled at an Open University (studying by correspondence and living all over the country). Aged 18–87 (mean age 29).Av; AccH, D, N
Kivuyo, 202073Punjab, India, NeighbourhoodNot reported120 African emigrant students in Pubjab. Age range 18->28 years 64.9% aged 23–27.Acc; DD
Kroll, 201948Khayelitsha, South Africa and Ahodwo, Ghana, NeighbourhoodSeptember–November 2017327 households in Khayelitsha, South Africa and 309 households in Ahodwo, Ghana.AvD
Leite, 201741Santos, Brazil, NeighbourhoodJanuary 2010–June 2011513 children aged under 10.AvD
Leme, 201793Sao Paulo, Brazil, Home2014253 adolescent girls aged 14%–18. 70.4% Hy weight, 18.3% overweight and 8.3% obese.Acc; DD
Li, 201185Xi'an City, China, SchoolMay–November 20041792 children aged 11–17 years (mean age 13.9). 49.8% female.Av; M&RH
Liu, 201447nine provinces, China, Neighbourhood2006No sample size reported. Aged 18–95 mean age 49.4 for urban and 48.7 for rural participants. 53% female in urban sample, 52% female in the rural sample.Av; Acc; ConvD
Liu, 202074Shenyang, China, Neighbourhood 68May 17th–June 23rd 20173670 children (mean age 10.8) from 26 schools. 49% female.AccH, D
Machado, 201782Brazil, Neighbourhood2008–200955970 households from a nationally representative surveyPrice, ConvD
Matozinhos, 201556Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood2008–20105273 adults aged 18–93 (mean age 43.6). 56.5% female. 12.1% with obesity.AvH
Mendes, 201367Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood2008–20093404 adults aged 18+ (mean age 39.7).AvH
Mendonça, 201942Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood2013/20143414 adults aged 20+ (mean age 56.7). 88.1% female. 62.7% with overweight or obesity.Av; V/PD
Menezes, 201877Belo Horizonte, Brazil, NeighbourhoodFebruary 2013–June 20143414 adults aged 20+ (mean age 56.7). 88.1% female. 62.7% with overweight or obesity.Acc; Aff; ConvD
Menezes, 201843Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood20152944 adults aged 20+ (mean age 56.8). 88.4% female.AvD
Miller, 201683Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe, China, Colombia, Iran, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Malaysia, Poland, Turkey, South Africa (and three high-income countries: Canada, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, however we extracted data from LMICS only), NeighbourhoodJanuary 1 2003–December 31 2013128112 adults. UMIC median age 51.0, 60% female, mean BMI 28.4. LMIC median age 51.0, 58% female, mean BMI 25.2. LIC median age 47.0, 57% female, mean BMI 23.3AffD
Nogueira, 201844Sao Paulo, Brazil, NeighbourhoodFebruary 2015– February 2016521 adolescents aged 12–19 (mean age 15.5). 49.3% female. 70.4% did not have overweight.AvD
Nogueira, 202057Sao Paulo, Brazil, NeighbourhoodFeb 2015–2016504 adolescents aged 12%–19. 48.6% female. 29.6% with overweight or obesity.AvH
Norbu, 201992Pemagatshel District, Bhutan, SchoolNot reported392 children aged 13–17 (mean age 14.5) from six schools.UnknownH
Ochoa-Meza, 201728six cities, Mexico, School and HomeNor reported1434 children aged 10%–12. 49.5% female.Acc; DD
Oyeyemi, 201279Maiduguri, Nigeria, NeighbourhoodAugust 2010– September 20111818 adults aged 20–65 (mean 32.2). 39.9% female. 22.8% with overweight and 8.1% with obesity.AccH
Opal, 201845Delhi, India, Neighbourhood2010–20115364 adults mean ages 43.7–45.6 across three categories of restaurant density. 50% female.AvH, D
Pessoa, 201546Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood2008–20105611 adults aged 18+ (mean age 39.7). 54.8% female.AvD
Rossi, 201881Florianopolis, Brazil, NeighbourhoodSeptember 2012 –June 20132152 children aged 7%–14. 21.5% had overweight and 12.7% had obesityAccH
Trinh, 202061Vietnam, Neighbourhood2010–2014Not reported.AvD, N
Vedovato, 201575Santos City, Brazil, NeighbourhoodJanuary– December 2010538 dyads, children aged 1–10 and mothers 62.1%AccD
Velásquez-Meléndez, 201368Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Neighbourhood2008–20093425 adults age 18+ (mean age 39.7). 49.9% female. 44% with overweight or obesity.AvH
Watson, 201369Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, Neighbourhood20102899 adults. 55.3% female. Male participants mean age 42.0 and mean BMI 25.4. Female participants mean age 43.7 and mean BMI 25.3.Av; Acc; Price; M&RH
Wertheim-Heck, 201932Hanoi, Vietnam, Neighbourhood2017–2018400 women of “childbearing age”AccD
Widiyanto, 201888Java, Indonesia, SchoolDecember 2017200 children in junior high school (age not reported). 72% female. 58% with BMI <23Av; DH
Wijnhoven, 2014107Bulgaria (and other HIC countries—results for Bulgaria extracted for our review), SchoolSeptember 2007–December 2008179 schools, at least 15 children per school.AvH
Yazdi Feyzabadi, 201790Iran, SchoolFebruary–March 2015.1242 14 year olds. 47.8% female.Av; M&R; Acc; DD
Zhang, 201249China, Neighbourhood20069788 adults. 52.7% female. 23.2% with overweight, 4.9% with obesity.AvD
Zhang, 201680China, Neighbourhood2009 and 2011348 children aged 6–17 (mean age 10.9). 49.7% female.AccH
Zhang, 202058China, Neighbourhood2013–2014170872 adults aged 18+. 57.3% female.AvH
Zheng, 201394China, Home2008–20095662 children aged 6%–18. 50.5% female.Av; DH
Zhou, 201759Wuhan, China, Neighbourhood2010189 adults aged 35–49. Mean BMI for men 25.5 and mean BMI for women 23.9.AvH
Zhou, 202086Beijing, China, SchoolMay–June in 2016.2201 students from 37 schools (mean age 10.2).AvH
Zuccolotto, 201578Brazil, NeighbourhoodMay–November 2012282 pregnant women in the second-trimester living in Brazil. Most between 20–29 years.Acc; DD
  • Acc, Accessibility; Aff, Affordability; Av, Availability; Conv, Convenience; D, Desirability; D, Diet; H, Health; M&R, Marketing and regulation; N, Nutrition; V/P, Vendor or product properties.