Table 2

Characterisation of the food environment, adopted from Turner et al16

Turner conceptExternalInternal
AvailabilityPricesVendor and product propertiesMarketing and regulationAccessibilityAffordabilityConvenienceDesirability
Turner definitionPresence of food sources or productsMonetary value of food productsVendor properties (typology, opening hours, services) and product properties (food quality, composition, safety, level of processing, shelf-life, packaging)Promotional information, branding advertising, sponsorship, labelling, policiesPhysical distance, time, space and place, individual activity spaces, daily mobility, mode or transportPurchasing powerRelative time and effort of preparing, cooking and consuming food product, time allocationPreferences, acceptability, tastes, desires, attitudes, culture, knowledge and skills
Primary outcomesSecondary outcomes
Examples from the identified literatureDensity of food retail outlets of various types. Counts of food retail outlets.
Presence of food retail outlets of various types.
Availability of specific food items at school or home.
Monetary value of fruit, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages, ultraprocessed food, apples.Quality of fruit and/or vegetables.
Commercial vendor within a school or non-commercialised food environment.
Billboard advertising of various types.
Advertising within food retail locations.
Provincial school policies.
Individual school policies.
School status as a health promoting school.
Workplace policy
Living near a fast-food outlet.
Perceived local food availability of various types.
Perceptions of ease of access to retail outlets of various types.
‘I can buy fruit and veg even when they are expensive’
The cost of two servings of fruit and three of vegetables per day relative to household income.
‘I have time to prepare and eat Fruit and veg’
‘Fruit and veg are easy to prepare for me’
Preferences measured using Likert scales ‘I like it very much’ to ‘I have not tried it’
  • Survey questions such as: ‘Parents remind me to eat’ ‘Parents pressure me to eat’ ‘everyday we eat on time’ ‘We watch TV during a meal’

  • Family support

  • Attitude of manager

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