Table 1

Eligibility criteria

DomainInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Population/settingMust feature one or more urban LMIC setting according to the World Bank Data (2020) classification of countries.106High-income country settings or high-income country and LMIC settings in which it is impossible to disaggregate the LMIC findings.
Exclusively rural settings.
Exposure/interventionOne or more of six food environment characteristics defined in table 2 (Availability, Price, Vendor and Product Properties, Marketing and Regulation, Accessibility and/or Affordability).
We also collected data on quantitative associations between two further food environment characteristics (Convenience or Desirability) and our outcomes of interest. However, if papers reported associations between these food environment characteristics and our outcomes of interest only, they were excluded.
Do not include relevant exposures.
OutcomesMust report a quantitative association between a food environment characteristic (as described in exposure/intervention) and:
Any health outcome (eg, prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes or any other health outcome)
Diet/ dietary behaviour outcome (eg, foods bought or consumed)
Nutrition outcome (energy intake, macronutrients or micronutrients consumed)
Do not include relevant outcomes or do not include associations between the exposure/intervention of interest and relevant outcomes.
Study designQuantitative or mixed-methods observational studies (cross-sectional, case–control, longitudinal cohort and mixed-methods studies) or intervention studies (including trials, interrupted time series or other intervention study designs) and natural experiments will be included.Reviews including systematic reviews
Qualitative studies
Publication typeOriginal peer-reviewed published articlesProtocols, full theses, case series and case reports.
Conference abstracts.
  • LMIC, low-income and middle-income country.