Table 4

Logistic regression showing association between stillbirth and the selected independent variables (n=2797†)

FactorUnadjusted (95% CI)Model I (95% CI)Model II (95% CI)Model III (95% CI)Model IV (95% CI)
Booking status at hospital of care
 Unbooked1.001.001.001.001.00
 Booked0.30 (0.23 to 0.39)***0.39 (0.29 to 0.51)***0.38 (0.28 to 0.51)***0.38 (0.28 to 0.52)***0.44 (0.33 to 0.61)***
Maternal complications
 No maternal complication1.001.001.001.001.00
 Obstructed labour0.09 (0.06 to 0.14)***0.09 (0.06 to 0.14)***0.08 (0.46 to 0.13)***0.08 (0.05 to 0.13)***0.09 (0.05 to 0.16)***
 Haemorrhage0.40 (0.27 to 0.59)***0.31 (0.21 to 0.47)***0.33 (0.21 to 0.52)***0.32 (0.20 to 0.50)***0.30 (0.19 to 0.49)***
 Hypertension0.19 (0.13 to 0.28)***0.15 (0.10 to 0.23)***0.16 (0.10 to 0.25)***0.15 (0.09 to 0.24)***0.17 (0.10 to 0.28)***
 Sepsis0.34 (0.20 to 0.57)***0.32 (0.18 to 0.55)***0.32 (0.17 to 0.60)***0.32 (0.17 to 0.60)***0.25 (0.13 to 0.47)***
 Others0.19 (0.12 to 0.31)***0.18 (0.11 to 0.29)***0.14 (0.08 to 0.26)***0.14 (0.08 to 0.25)***0.15 (0.08 to 0.27)***
Employment status
 Unemployed/housewife1.001.001.001.001.00
 Student0.63 (0.36 to 1.10)0.87 (0.48 to 1.58)0.90 (0.47 to 1.74)0.89 (0.46 to 1.71)0.79 (0.40 to 1.55)
 Self-employed (petty-trader)0.73 (0.55 to 0.97)*0.69 (0.52 to 0.93)*0.65 (0.46 to 0.92)*0.66 (0.47 to 0.93)*0.65 (0.46 to 0.92)*
 Self-employed (mid-high business)1.19 (0.83 to 1.70)1.27 (0.87 to 1.85)1.32 (0.87 to 2.00)1.32 (0.87 to 2.00)1.36 (0.89 to 2.09)
 Employed0.60 (0.43 to 0.84)**0.66 (0.46 to 0.95)*0.70 (0.47 to 1.05)0.70 (0.47 to 1.05)0.69 (0.45 to 1.04)
No of gestations
 Singleton1.001.001.001.001.00
 Multiple1.96 (1.33 to 2.89)***2.16 (1.41 to 3.29)***2.57 (1.60 to 4.13)***2.48 (1.54 to 3.97)***3.09 (1.88 to 5.06)***
Parity
 Nulliparous (0)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Multiparous (1–4)1.48 (1.17 to 1.88)**1.08 (0.83 to 1.40)0.96 (0.72 to 1.29)0.96 (0.72 to 1.29)0.90 (0.67 to 1.22)
 Grand-multiparous (5 or more)2.16 (1.19 to 3.91)*1.43 (0.76 to 2.72)1.70 (0.84 to 3.47)1.70 (0.83 to 3.46)1.69 (0.82 to 3.48)
Age
 12–190.98 (0.48 to 1.98)0.90 (0.42 to 1.93)0.72 (0.29 to 1.81)0.77 (0.31 to 1.93)0.73 (0.29 to 1.84)
 20–341.001.001.001.001.00
 35–601.51 (1.20 to 1.90)***1.42 (1.10 to 1.84)**1.49 (1.12 to 1.99)**1.50 (1.13 to 2.00)**1.51 (1.13 to 2.02)**
Referral
 Self-referral (home to referral hospital)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Institutional referral2.02 (1.63 to 2.50)***1.42 (1.12 to 1.81)**1.46 (1.08 to 1.97)*1.42 (1.05 to 1.93)*1.55 (1.13 to 2.12)**
Total distance to hospital of care
 Within 5 km1.001.001.00
 5–10 km1.48 (1.08 to 2.02)*1.21 (0.87 to 1.69)0.95 (0.64 to 1.41)
 >10–15 km1.22 (0.81 to 1.85)0.98 (0.63 to 1.53)0.73 (0.41 to 1.30)
 >15–20 km1.78 (1.14 to 2.77)*1.12 (0.69 to 1.82)0.82 (0.43 to 1.56)
 >20–25 km1.11 (0.63 to 1.98)0.72 (0.39 to 1.32)0.53 (0.24 to 1.17)
 >25–30 km0.97 (0.51 to 1.87)0.61 (0.31 to 1.21)0.43 (0.18 to 1.05)
 >30–35 km1.01 (0.47 to 2.15)0.60 (0.27 to 1.33)0.42 (0.15 to 1.16)
 >35 km1.75 (1.19 to 2.59)**1.19 (0.78 to 1.83)0.77 (0.34 to 1.73)
Total travel time to hospital of care
 0–9 min1.001.001.00
 10–29 min2.42 (1.59 to 3.67)***2.02 (1.30 to 3.13)**2.25 (1.40 to 3.63)***
 30–59 min2.37 (1.52 to 3.68)***1.65 (1.03 to 2.63)*2.30 (1.22 to 4.34)**
 60–119 min2.32 (1.46 to 3.68)***1.35 (0.82 to 2.23)2.35 (1.05 to 5.25)*
 120–480 min3.46 (1.92 to 6.27)***1.83 (0.95 to 3.51)2.68 (0.95 to 7.55)
  • Footnote (Model description): Model I: adjusted for all variables in the model including sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics; Model II: adjusted for all variables in the model including sociodemographic, obstetric and characteristics related to travel distance for all women whose journey from home to hospital could be traced; Model III: adjusted for all variables in the model including sociodemographic, obstetric and characteristics related to time of travel for all women whose journey from home to hospital could be traced; Model IV: adjusted for all variables in the model including sociodemographic, obstetric, distance and time of travel characteristics for all women whose journey from home to hospital could be traced.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • †Excludes women whose journey to hospital could not be determined (n=415).