Table 3

Factors associated with referral of SPs with presumptive TB or MDR-TB for medical assessment

PredictorsPresumptive TBPresumptive MDR-TB
N=318N=320
Referred to healthcare provider (yes)
Frequency (%)
Referred to healthcare provider (no)
Frequency (%)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) (referred compared with not referred)aOR (95% CI) (referred compared with not referred) n=317 (model 1)Referred to healthcare provider (yes)
Frequency (%)
Referred to healthcare provider (no)
Frequency (%)
OR (95% CI) (referred compared with not referred)aOR (95% CI) (referred compared with not referred) n=319 (model 2)
Region
 North9 (23.1)191 (68.5)1.01.046 (39.7)155 (76.0)1.01.0
 South30 (76.9)88 (31.5)7.2 (3.3 to 15.9)8.78 (3.8 to 20.4)70 (60.3)49 (24.0)4.8 (2.9 to 7.9)4.7 (2.9 to 7.8)
Geographical location
 Rural37 (94.9)236 (84.6)1.0NI95 (81.9)180 (88.2)1.0NP
 Urban2 (5.1)43 (15.4)0.3 (0.1 to 1.3)21 (18.1)24 (11.8)1.7 (0.9 to 3.1)
Medical history taken by pharmacy staff
 No10 (8.1)113 (91.9)1.01.020 (17.2)55 (27.0)1.01.0
 Yes29 (14.9)166 (85.1)2.0 (0.9 to 4.2)3.9 (1.7 to 9.0)96 (82.8)149 (73.0)1.8 (1.0 to 3.1)1.8 (1.0 to 3.2)
Number of pharmacies/10 000 commune population
 Median (IQR)10.7 (5.5–16.6)10.7 (6.9–17.7)10.6 (5.9–16.1)10.8 (6.8–18.3)NP
 Low (<median)1.0NP1.0
 High (≥median)0.7 (0.9 to 1.7)0.9 (0.6 to 1.5)
Gender of attending staff
 Female29 (74.4)216 (77.4)1.0NP86 (74.1)169 (82.8)1.0NP
 Male10 (25.6)63 (22.6)1.2 (0.5 to 2.6)30 (25.9)35 (17.2)1.7 (1.0 to 2.9)
Registration statusNP
 Not registered6 (15.4)123 (44.1)1.030 (25.9)98 (48.0)1.0NP
 Registered33 (84.6)156 (65.9)4.3 (1.8 to 10.7)86 (74.1)106 (52.0)2.6 (1.6 to 4.4)
Type of facilityNI
 Pharmacy1 (2.6)29 (10.4)1.016 (13.8)22 (10.8)1.0NP
 Drug counter38 (97.4)250 (89.6)4.4 (0.6 to 33.3)100 (86.2)182 (89.2)0.8 (0.4 to 1.5)
Interaction time (min)NPNP
 Median (IQR)4 (4–5)4.0 (3–5)
 Missing values014.5 (4–5)5.0 (4–5)
 Low (<median)1.01.0
 High (≥median)2.5 (1.1 to 5.9)0.9 (0.6 to 1.5)
Commune population density (PPH)NP
 Median (IQR)8.4 (4.5–11.6)12.2 (8.0–17.1)10.6 (6.1–16.2)12.6 (8.7–17.1)
 Low (<median)1.01.01.0
 High (≥median)0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)0.4 (0.2 to 0.9)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)
  • Model accuracy and fit: model 1: PAC=87.7%, omnibus χ2 test for the model <0.001 and Hosmer and Lemeshow χ2 test for the model=0.581.

  • Model 2: PAC=71.2%, omnibus χ2 test for the model <0.001 and Hosmer and Lemeshow χ2 test for the model=0.840. All of these values indicate that the models fit well.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; CI, 95% Confidence Interval; MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; NI, not included in the adjusted model due to few/no observations found in one cell or few cells; NP, not predicted in the dimension of final model produced using backward deletion method; PAC, percentage accuracy in classification; PPH, number of people per hectare; SP, standardised patient.