Table 3

Bivariate analysis for fetal outcomes (N=3278)

CharacteristicsNo of stillbirths ((%) n=408)No of live births ((%) n=2870)P value
Age
 12–199 (11.1)72 (88.9)0.002
 20–34275 (11.3)2155 (88.7)
 35–50124 (16.2)643 (83.8)
Marital status
 Single17 (12.2)122 (87.8)0.937
 Married391 (12.5)2748 (87.5)
Employment status
 Unemployed/housewife86 (15.3)477 (84.7)0.001
 Student17 (10.2)149 (89.8)
 Self-employed (petty-trader)174 (11.7)1319 (88.3)
 Self-employed (mid-high business)63 (17.7)294 (82.3)
 Employed68 (9.7)631 (90.3)
Parity
 Nulliparous (0)109 (9.7)1018 (90.3)0.001
 Multiparous (1–4)284 (13.7)1787 (86.3)
 Grand-multiparous (5 or more)15 (18.8)65 (81.2)
No of gestations
 Singleton373 (12.0)2739 (88.0)0.001
 Multiple35 (21.1)131 (78.9)
Booking status
 Booked81 (5.9)1299 (94.1)<0.001
 Unbooked327 (17.2)1571 (82.8)
Maternal complications
 No maternal complication53 (38.1)86 (61.9)<0.001
 Obstructed labour51 (5.2)939 (94.8)
 Haemorrhage144 (19.8)583 (80.2)
 Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia96 (10.4)827 (89.6)
 Sepsis29 (17.2)140 (82.8)
 Others35 (10.6)295 (89.4)
Weekend travel to facility
 Yes93 (12.2)669 (87.8)0.817
 No315 (12.5)2201 (87.5)
Period of day of travel to the facility (n=2187)
 Morning90 (11.2)711 (88.8)0.117
 Afternoon67 (11.5)515 (88.5)
 Evening56 (11.2)445 (88.8)
 Night49 (16.2)254 (83.8)
Referral
 Not referred242 (10.2)2142 (89.8)<0.001
 Referred166 (18.6)728 (81.4)
Referral facility (n=894)
 Another hospital (public)24 (17.0)117 (83.0)0.002
 Another hospital (private42 (23.5)137 (76.5)
 Clinic (public or private)3 (4.6)63 (95.4)
 Primary health centre64 (16.4)326 (83.6)
 Traditional birth attendant27 (29.4)65 (70.6)
 Nursing/maternity home2 (33.3)4 (66.7)
 Non-formal referral5 (25.0)15 (75.0)
Distance of travel from home directly to a hospital (n=2259‡)
 Within 5 km83 (8.6)885 (91.4)0.057
 5–10 km63 (12.4)447 (87.6)
 >10–15 km19 (8.0)220 (92.0)
 >15–20 km21 (15.3)116 (84.7)
 >20–25 km8 (8.9)82 (91.1)
 >25–30 km9 (10.1)80 (89.9)
 >30–35 km2 (3.5)55 (96.5)
 >35 km17 (10.1)152 (89.9)
Distance of travel from home to initial facility for referred women (n=538†)
 Within 5 km47 (18.7)205 (81.3)0.513
 5–10 km16 (14.9)91 (85.1)
 >10–15 km12 (20.7)46 (79.3)
 >15–20 km9 (21.9)32 (78.1)
 >20–25 km3 (10.7)25 (89.3)
 >25–30 km2 (11.1)16 (88.9)
 >30–35 km3 (42.9)4 (57.1)
 >35 km6 (22.2)21 (77.8)
Distance of travel from initial facility to final facility of care for referred women (n=538†)
 Within 5 km37 (18.5)163 (81.5)0.408
 5–10 km18 (14.5)106 (85.5)
 >10–15 km11 (17.2)53 (82.8)
 >15–20 km11 (22.0)39 (78.0)
 >20–25 km4 (12.5)28 (87.5)
 >25–30 km3 (14.3)18 (85.7)
 >30–35 km3 (37.5)5 (62.5)
 >35 km11 (28.2)28 (71.8)
Total traceable distance for all women whose journeys were traceable (n=2797*)
 Within 5 km98 (9.3)953 (90.7)0.038
 5–10 km82 (13.2)539 (86.8)
 >10–15 km34 (11.2)270 (88.8)
 >15–20 km30 (15.5)164 (84.5)
 >20–25 km15 (10.3)131 (89.7)
 >25–30 km11 (9.1)110 (90.9)
 >30–35 km8 (9.4)77 (90.6)
 >35 km42 (15.3)233 (84.7)
Time of travel from home directly to a hospital (N=2259‡)
 0–9 min27 (5.5)464 (94.5)0.009
 10–29 min102 (11.4)794 (88.6)
 30–59 min54 (10.8)447 (89.2)
 60–119 min33 (10.4)284 (89.6)
 120–480 min6 (11.1)48 (88.9)
Time of travel from home to initial facility for referred women (n=538†)
 0–9 min24 (20.2)95 (79.8)0.116
 10–29 min39 (18.8)168 (81.2)
 30–59 min19 (14.7)110 (85.3)
 60–119 min9 (13.8)56 (86.2)
 120–480 min7 (38.9)11 (61.1)
Time of travel from initial facility to final facility of care for referred women (n=538†)
 0–9 min16 (15.7)86 (84.3)0.275
 10–29 min39 (20.0)156 (80.0)
 30–59 min20 (13.8)125 (86.2)
 60–119 min19 (23.2)63 (76.8)
 120–480 min4 (28.6)10 (71.4)
Total travel time for all women whose journeys were traceable (n=2797†)
 0–9 min29 (5.7)484 (94.3)<0.001
 10–29 min129 (12.7)891 (87.3)
 30–59 min81 (12.4)571 (87.6)
 60–119 min59 (12.2)425 (87.8)
 120–480 min22 (17.2)106 (82.8)
  • Mode of birth was excluded from the bivariate analysis, as the outcome occurred before the birth.

  • *Excludes women whose journey from home to health facility could not be determined (n=125).

  • †Excludes women whose referral journey could not be determined (n=356).

  • ‡Excludes women whose journey to facility could not be determined (n=134).