Table 3

Key characteristics of childbirth service readiness indices

No of itemsItems <40%Items ≥90%Coefficient of variationFloor effects (score=0)Ceiling effects (score=1)Correlation with delivery volume
n%%%%r*P value
Hospitals (n=160)
SARA tracer, simple220730.100210.33<0.001
SARA tracer, weighted0.110210.32<0.001
SARA tracer, PCA0.201<10.33<0.001
DHS, simple330850.070140.250.002
DHS, weighted†0.070200.200.013
DHS, PCA0.151<10.31<0.001
WHO standards, simple520670.09060.230.003
WHO standards, weighted0.09060.26<0.001
WHO standards, PCA0.161<10.29<0.001
Health centres/clinics (n=246)
SARA tracer, simple157530.17070.190.004
SARA tracer, weighted0.19070.180.004
SARA tracer, PCA0.18170.200.002
DHS, simple303330.16010.35<0.001
DHS, weighted†0.16020.39<0.001
DHS, PCA0.20110.36<0.001
WHO standards, simple442230.20000.31<0.001
WHO standards, weighted0.20000.35<0.001
WHO standards, PCA0.241<10.31<0.001
  • *Spearman’s correlation coefficients.

  • †Weighted addition of DHS items excluded the domain for ‘guidelines, staff training and supervision’ given limited information on these items for this sample.

  • DHS, Demographic and Health Survey; PCA, principal components analysis; SARA, Service Availability and Readiness Assessment.