Table 1

Summary of assessment tools reviewed for quality of care for children in health facilities

ToolDevelopment/sourceType of health facility tool designed forPopulation and services tool designed forKey topics assessed by toolCountries that have used tool*Version assessedModules included in assessment
Service Provision Assessment10USAID - MEASURE EvaluationAll health facility typesAll ages
Family planning, maternal and child health services, communicable and non-communicable diseases, basic surgery
  • Availability of health services

  • Services readiness of health facilities

  • Extent services follow accepted standards of care

  • Satisfaction levels of clients and service providers

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Congo DR, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia2012
  • Inventory

  • Clinical observation—sick child

  • Exit interview—caretaker of sick child

  • Health worker interview

Rapid Health Facility Assessment32USAID-MEASURE EvaluationPrimary healthcare facilitiesWomen and children
Maternal, neonatal and child health services
  • Assessment, diagnosis and treatment of common childhood illnesses

  • Service readiness of health facilities

  • Quality of management processes in health facilities

Nigeria, South Sudan2008
  • Clinical observation—sick child

  • Exit interview—caretaker of sick child

  • Health worker interview and record review

  • Health facility checklist

Service Availability and Readiness Assessment19WHOAll health facility typesAll ages
Maternal and child health services, communicable and non-communicable diseases, surgical care
  • Service availability-infrastructure, core health personnel, service utilisation

  • General service readiness-basic equipment, amenities, infection prevention, diagnostic capacity, essential medicines

  • Service-specific readiness

Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Congo DR, Cote D’Ivoire, Djibouti, Ghana, Haiti, India, Kenya, Lao PDR, Libya Madagascar, Mauritania, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan Tanzania, Togo, Uganda Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe2015
  • Staffing

  • Infrastructure

  • Available services

  • Diagnostics

  • Medicines and commodities

Health Facility Survey-using Integrated Management Childhood Illness as clinical guidelines33WHOPrimary level outpatient health facilitiesAll children
Outpatient care for sick children
  • Quality of case management received by sick children

  • Quality of counselling of caretakers

  • Availability of key heath system supports-edicines, equipment, supervision, referral system

  • Barriers to effective integrated case management

Botswana, Cambodia, Guatemala, Kenya, Zambia, Afghanistan, Rwanda, China, Malawi, Mongolia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam, Kiribati, Lao PDR, Solomon Islands2003
  • Clinical observation—sick child

  • Exit interview—caretaker of sick child

  • Re-examination of sick child

  • Equipment and supply checklist

Assessment Tool for Hospital Care (WHO-SE Asia Office)12WHO-SE Asia OfficeAll hospitalsWomen and children
Maternal, neonatal and child health services
  • Service availability and readiness-infrastructure, hospital support systems, staffing, essential medicines and diagnostics

  • Quality of medical care provided for maternal, neonatal and child health services

  • Satisfaction levels of clients and service providers

Indonesia, Nepal2016
  • General hospital information

  • Paediatric care

  • Caregiver interview

  • Health worker interview

  • Postal questionnaire

Hospital care for children: quality assessment and improvement tool (WHO-Europe Office)11WHO-Europe OfficeAll hospitalsAll children, excluding newborns
Paediatric services, excluding neonatal healthcare
  • Service availability and readiness-infrastructure, hospital support systems, health management information systems, staffing, essential medicines and equipment

  • Quality of medical care provided for common childhood illnesses and emergency presentations

  • Hospital polices and guidelines-infection prevention, training, access, patient’s rights

  • Satisfaction levels of clients and service providers

Kyrgystan, Tajikistan, Ethiopia, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique2015
  • Hospital support services

  • Case management

  • Policies and organisation of services

  • Interviews

Health Resources Availability Mapping System34WHOHumanitarian and Emergency Response settingsAll ages
Essential trauma care, child health and nutrition, communicable diseases, mental health, sexual and reproductive health
  • Availability of health facilities and services

  • Resources for service delivery-infrastructure, human resources, communications, infection control

  • Reasons for gaps in service availability

Sudan, Uganda2017
  • Hospitals assessment tool

  • Health centres assessment tool

Health Results Based Financing impact evaluation toolkit35World BankAll healthcare facilities
(Programme evaluating the impact of health-related results-based financing incentives)
All ages with focus on women and children
Maternal, neonatal and child health, communicable diseases
  • Quantity of health services delivered

  • Quality of health services provided

  • Health outcomes

  • Resource management at health facilities

  • Impact on non-results based financing services delivered

  • Disaggregation of impact by provider and population characteristics

Tajikistan, Burkina Faso, Congo DR, Rwanda, Benin, Lesotho, Kyrgyzstan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, The Gambia,2012
  • Health facility assessment

  • Health worker individual

  • Exit interview-caregiver for child under 5

Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems-Child Version9Boston Children’s HospitalAll hospitalsAll children
All paediatric inpatient health services
  • Quality of communication with caregivers and patients

  • Attention to safety and comfort

  • Hospital environment

Belgium, Canada, USA, Argentina2014
  • Entire survey (62 items)

  • *Only includes countries with reports/data publicly available.