Table 4

Harvest plot of nudging outcomes among the general population included in this systematic review*

Disfavours nudgesEmbedded ImageMixed resultsEmbedded ImageFavours nudgesEmbedded Image
Feasibility, acceptability, & satisfaction
Make available information salientEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Change the way outcomes are framedEmbedded Image
Invoke social normsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Encourage emotional affectEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Change defaultsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Offer incentiveEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Knowledge & awareness about vaccination
Make available information salientEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Change the way outcomes are framedEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Encourage emotional affectEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Offer incentiveEmbedded Image
Change the messengerEmbedded Image
Intention to vaccinate
Make available information salientEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Change the way outcomes are framed

Embedded Image
Embedded ImageEmbedded Image
Invoke social normsEmbedded Image
Encourage emotional affectEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Change defaultsEmbedded Image
Offer incentiveEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Vaccination uptake
Make available information salientEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Change defaultsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Offer incentiveEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • * Each study is presented as a bar highlighting certainty of evidence; darker shaded bars are RCTs (graded on a 4-point GRADE scale) and lighter shades represent non-RCTs and other study designs (graded on a 5-point MMAT scale). Numbers within each bar refer to study references as cited in the reference list.