Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Population and sampleGeneral population, to reflect all vaccination target groups and all stakeholders involved in the vaccination decision (eg, parents, healthcare workers and adolescents).
Literature focus
  1. Original research and/or scientific papers on nudging interventions* to address vaccine hesitancy and/or increase vaccine uptake.

  2. Studies set within the national immunisation programmes, defined as those vaccines recommended for all age groups—children, adolescents and adults.

  3. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of vaccine-related nudges, as well as how the general population experiences and accepts such interventions.

  1. Studies without ethical approval.

  2. Articles that are research summaries, commentaries, peer-reviewed conference or seminar papers, and/or personal viewpoints.

  3. Articles that are abstract only and/or lack retrievable full text.

Time periodJanuary 2008†–May 2021
  • *Nudging interventions as defined by the MINDSPACE framework41 and complementary literature,42 43 which group interventions according to whether they change messenger, incentives, norms, defaults, salience, priming, affect, commitments or ego.

  • †Nudging theory emerged in 2008.25