Table 1

Model summary: parameters and data sources

ParameterData source
Direct medical cost: Healthcare expenditures
Total healthcare expendituresWHO Global Health Expenditure Database22
Obesity-attributable fraction of healthcare expenditures for Australia, Brazil, India, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Spain‘The Heavy Burden of Obesity: The Economics of Prevention’, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Health Policy Studies15
Direct non-medical cost: Travel costs for inpatient and outpatient visits for persons with obesity
Average travel cost to and from health facility: AustraliaHousehold Expenditure Survey 2015–201649
Average travel cost to/from health facility: BrazilConsumption and Socioeconomic Classification in Brazil: a Study Based on the Brazilian Family Expenditure Survey50
Average travel cost to/from health facility: IndiaKey Indicators of Household Expenditure of Services and Durable Goods51
Average travel cost/from health facility: MexicoMexico: Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares52
Average travel cost to/from health facility: Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia Household Income and Expenditure Survey53
Average travel cost to/from health facility: South AfricaSouth Africa: Measuring household expenditure on public transport technical report54
Average travel cost to/from health facility: SpainSpain: Survey of Family Budgets55
Average travel cost to/from health facility: ThailandThe 2017 Household Socioeconomic Survey Whole Kingdom56
Average no. of hospitalisations by population with obesity: Brazil, South Africa, India, Mexico, ThailandKudel I et al 57This source provides country-specific data for Brazil and was used for other LMICs (South Africa, India, Mexico and Thailand).
Average no. of hospitalisations by population with obesity: Australia, Saudi ArabiaKorda et al 58This source provides country-specific data for Australia and was also used for Saudi Arabia, the other high-income country for which data was not available.
Average no. of hospitalisations by population with obesity: SpainEspallardo et al 59
Average no. of outpatient visits by population with obesity: Brazil, South Africa, India, Mexico, ThailandKudel et al 57This source provides country-specific data for Brazil and was used for other LMICs (South Africa, India, Mexico and Thailand).
Average no. of outpatient visits by population with obesity: Australia, Saudi Arabia, SpainEspallardo et al 59This source provides country-specific data for Spain and was used for other high-income countries (Australia and Saudi Arabia).
Obesity prevalenceN.C.D. Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)60
Direct non-medical cost: Informal caregiver (ICG) travel cost
Average travel cost to and from health facilitySame as patient average travel cost to and from health facility
Average no. of hospitalisations by population with obesitySame as above
Obesity prevalenceN.C.D. Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)60
Direct non-medical cost: ICG time cost
Average daily wage: AustraliaOECD.Stat Database61
Average daily wage: IndiaILO Global Wage Report62
Average daily wage: Brazil, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, ThailandThe ILOStat database contains country-specific data for the listed countries.63
Average length of hospitalisation of population with obesity: Australia, Saudi Arabia, SpainKorda et al 58This source provides country-specific data for Australia and was used for other high-income countries (Saudi Arabia and Spain).
Average length of hospitalisation of population with obesity: Brazil, South Africa, India, Mexico, ThailandOrdoñez et al 64This source provides country-specific data for Brazil and was used for other LMICs (South Africa, India, Mexico and Thailand).
Obesity prevalenceN.C.D. Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)60
Indirect cost: Premature mortality
Obesity-attributable mortalityGlobal Burden of Disease Study (GBD)21
Life expectancyUnited Nations Population Division (UNPD)24
Background death ratesUnited Nations Population Division (UNPD)24
Annual gross domestic product per capitaWorld Bank World Development Indicators DataBase23
Indirect cost: Absenteeism
Excess days absent: No of additional days of absenteeism taken by an average obese employee compared with an average non-obese employee: Brazil, Mexico, ThailandKudel et al 57 This source provides country-specific data for Brazil and was used for other LMICs (Mexico and Thailand).
Excess days absent: Australia, Saudi ArabiaKeramat et al 65This source provides country-specific data for Australia and was used for the other high-income country for which data was not available (Saudi Arabia).
Excess days absent: South AfricaMaseko66
Excess days absent: SpainCatalina-Romero et al 67
Employment ratesWorld Bank World Development Indicators Database23
Average annual wagesSame as informal caregiver wage sources
Indirect cost: Presenteeism
Excess presenteeism rate: rate of reduced productivity among obese employees: Brazil, South Africa, India, Mexico, ThailandKudel et al 57This source provides country-specific data for Australia and was used for other LMICs (South Africa, India, Mexico and Thailand).
Excess presenteeism rate: AustraliaWeighing the cost of obesity: A call for action by PwC68
Excess presenteeism rate: Saudi Arabia, SpainHayman69This source provides country-specific data for Saudi Arabia and was used for the other high-income country for which data was not available (Spain).
Employment ratesWorld Bank World Development Indicators23
Average annual wagesSame as informal caregiver wage sources
  • LMICs, low-income and middle-income countries.