Table 4

The essential diagnosis-specific care for critically ill patients with COVID-19

Clinical processes
  1. The Essential Emergency and Critical Care (EECC) clinical processes as specified for all critical illnesses

  2. Personal protective equipment (PPE) that is appropriate for COVID-19 as part of infection, prevention and control

  3. Monitoring oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry at least every 6 hours, unless otherwise prescribed

  4. Intermittent prone positioning

  5. Low molecular weight heparin or other anticoagulant

  6. Corticosteroid

  7. Antibiotics in patients with suspected bacterial superinfection

Hospital readiness requirements
Critically ill patients with COVID-19 require the same hospital readiness for EECC as other critically ill patients. For the provision of the essential diagnosis specific care of critically ill patients with COVID-19, the following additional items are required
CategoryItem
3.1 Equipment‚ÄÉNone
3.2 Consumables3.2.1 Facemasks appropriate for COVID-19 (eg, N95)
3.2.2 Eye protection or face shields
3.3 Drugs3.3.1 Low-molecular weight heparin (eg, enoxaparin or dalteparin) or other anticoagulant
3.3.2 Corticosteroid (eg, dexamethasone)
3.4 Human resource3.4.1 Health workers with the ability to care for critically ill patients with COVID-19 24 hours/day
3.5 Training3.5.1 The health workers are trained in essential care of critically ill patients with COVID-19
3.6 Routines3.6.1 Routines for care of critically ill patients with COVID-19
3.7 Guidelines3.7.1 Guidelines for essential care of critically ill patients with COVID-19
3.8 Infrastructure3.8.1 Areas for separating and managing patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 from those without