*Spatiotemporal modelling:* analysis of data collected over space and over time.80
*Risk mapping*: a visual representation of risk variation of particular disease processes over a set of spatial units. | 23–27 29 31 38 42–49 51–57 61 81–94 |

*Regression analysis:* the effect of one or several explanatory variables (eg, exposures, subject characteristics, risk factors) on a response variable such as mortality or cancer.95
*Time series analysis:* an analysis on the basis of the fact that ‘data points taken over time may have an internal structure (autocorrelation, trend or seasonal variation) that should be accounted for’.96Prediction of future events by analysing the trends of the past, on the assumption that future trends will hold similar to historical trends.97 | 25–27 31 42–46 48 49 54 57–61 64 65 84 86–89 91–94 98–101 |

*Other probabilistic/quantitative models:* modelling relationships between parameters through equations and/or numerical data. | 28–30 35 45 50 51 62 90 |

*Computing and internet systems*: models using computing systems (phone, computer-based) coupled to retrieval of internet data. | 36 37 56 59 64 65 |

*Other qualitative outbreak prediction:* models using descriptive, non-quantitative methods (eg, expert opinion) to infer relationships and/or causality between two parameters. | 32–34 42 50 51 54 81 91 |