Table 2

FF by continent/country in prevalence surveys of cardiovascular medicine quality

ContinentCountryIncomePublications (n)Data points (n)FF % (n/N)
Europe80.0% (8/10)
BelgiumHIC1180.0% (8/10)
Americas43.2% (38/88)
BrazilUMIC3961.4% (35/57)
MexicoUMIC2360.0% (3/5)
USAHIC220.0% (0/26)
Africa20.3% (434/2143)
NigeriaLMIC2738.7% (179/463)
NigerLIC1724.0% (24/100)
CongoLMIC1722.0% (33/150)
BeninLIC1720.6% (67/325)
ZimbabweLMIC1218.2% (2/11)
DR CongoLIC21217.9% (25/140)
Côte d'IvoireLMIC1717.6% (52/295)
MauritaniaLMIC1715.3% (23/150)
RwandaLIC1512.5% (2/16)
Burkina FasoLIC1710.0% (14/140)
TogoLIC298.3% (10/121)
GuineaLIC154.0% (2/50)
SenegalLMIC170.8% (1/130)
LibyaUMIC120.0% (0/9)
South AfricaUMIC110.0% (0/43)
Asia4.3% (42/973)
IndonesiaLMIC13100.0% (4/4)
ChinaUMIC1153.8% (14/26)
JapanHIC1316.7% (1/6)
MyanmarLMIC2211.8% (2/17)
AfghanistanLMIC1110.0% (3/30)
CambodiaLIC118.9% (7/79)
MongoliaLMIC116.8% (8/118)
IndiaLMIC260.6% (3/521)
JordanUMIC140.0% (0/172)
Unknown*UnknownUnknown221.5% (3/200)
Total2713115.4% (525/3414)
  • Because of the limited number of samples tested for quality in the studies included in this review, the figures should not be interpreted as representative of the prevalence of specific substandard and falsified cardiovascular medicines (please refer to the Discussion section).

  • FF is defined as the proportion of samples that failed at least one quality test described in the report.

  • *Multicountry study (Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland and Portugal) with no breakdown of the results by country.

  • FF, failure frequency; HIC, high-income country; LIC, low-income country; LMIC, low-income and middle-income country; UMIC, upper middle-ncome country.