Table 3

FF by API/API combination in prevalence surveys of cardiovascular medicine quality

API/API combinationPublications (n)Data points (n)FF % (n/N)
Enalapril11100.0% (2/2)
Clopidogrel–acetylsalicylic acid1180.0% (8/10)
Nifedipine1176.5% (78/102)
Candesartan2642.6% (20/47)
Warfarin2437.5% (3/8)
Lisinopril1331.9% (53/166)
Simvastatin31328.1% (64/228)
Captopril31225.8% (63/244)
Methyldopa2220.0% (1/5)
Epinephrine1218.2% (2/11)
Amlodipine51618.1% (151/832)
Atenolol8177.8% (40/511)
Furosemide6147.1% (33/466)
Hydrochlorothiazide5141.8% (4/218)
Atorvastatin461.5% (3/199)
Ramipril110.0% (0/39)
Acenocoumarol1100.0% (0/165)
Clopidogrel110.0% (0/33)
Diltiazem110.0% (0/12)
Bisoprolol220.0% (0/77)
Propranolol220.0% (0/4)
Digoxin110.0% (0/2)
Valsartan–hydrochlorothiazide110.0% (0/33)
Total2713115.4% (525/3414)
  • Because of the limited number of samples tested for quality in the studies included in this review, the figures should not be interpreted as representative of the prevalence of specific specific substandard and falsified cardiovascular medicines (please refer to the Discussion section).

  • Note: We found no data on the quality of medicines belonging to the WHO ATC peripheral vasodilator and vasoprotective subgroups.

  • FF is defined as the proportion of samples that failed at least one quality test described in the report.

  • API, active pharmaceutical ingredient; ATC, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical; FF, failure frequency.