Table 1

Newborn clinical signs assessed for in the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement Gestational Age study

Neuromuscular signsPosture
Arm recoil
Scarf sign
Popliteal angle
Heel-to-ear test
Ankle dorsiflexion
Physical signsSkin: Colour, texture, opacity and presence of lanugo
Ear: Shape and recoil
Breast: Nipple–areola development
Male genitalia: Testes and scrotum
Female genitalia: Labia and clitoris
Foot: Plantar creases
AnthropometryHead circumference (cm)
Chest circumference (cm)
Breast bud diameter (mm)
Mid-upper arm circumference (cm)
Foot length (mm)
Infant length (cm)
Symphysis–fundal height (cm)
Weight (g)
Breast feeding ObservationSigns of attachment: more areola above infant’s top lip than below bottom lip; mouth wide open; lower lip everted; chin touching the breast
Suckling behaviour: presence of deep, slow sucks with swallowing in between
Duration the infant was able to stay attached to the breast continuously during the feed
Longest continuous burst of suckling (number of sucks)
Suck-to-swallow ratio