Table 3

Characteristics of study ethics and safety

Procedural ethicsSafety
Study IDInformed consent collected remotelyReferral pathwayData securityMeasures to minimise loss to follow-upCompensationSafety-related eligibility criteriaScheduling/ communicationSafety considerations for participant
Campbell et al30In person with advocateNMNMNANMNMNM (phone)NM
Foshee et al23Remote: mothers consented for themselves and their teen over phone, adolescents provided verbal assentNMNMCompensationY, $15 visa gift card to adolescent participantsWomen couldn't still be living with an abusive partnerNM (phone)NM
McFarlane et al29In person with researcherProvided by court, not research teamNMCompensation$20 for first (in person) interview, $30 for 3-month follow-up and $40 for 6-month follow-upAble to provide safe phone number and mailing addressCalls scheduled at participants’ convenienceNM
Messing et al26Remote: telephonic consent obtained by researcherYNMNMNMAble to provide safe phone numbersPolice officers asked for safe times and phone numbers for participants to be contactedNM
Taft et al27Mixed: written consent was obtained from male participants in person; female partner’s verbal consent obtained via telephoneYNMCompensation$50 for completing each assessment (men and their partners); no explanation how those incentives were distributedNMFemale participants were asked if they were in a safe and private place to answer questions, if not, a call-back time was scheduledNM
Van Parys et al28In person: verbal and written consent obtained by clinic staffFor intervention group onlyCase numbers were randomly assigned to participants; ID key was created and stored by a researcher outside the studyOne-time incentive (unspecified amount)Gift voucher (unspecified amount)Women must have been able to complete informed consent form without accompanying person presentNMNM
Westwood et al31NM: consent obtained by staff safety workersNMCalls were anonymousNANMNParticipant chose the time and contact method for the interviewNM
Bragesjo et al34Remote: signed consent form through websiteYUsername and password were issued, dual factor identification was usedNMNMNNM (non-phone)NM
Ford-Gilboe et al7Remote: verbal consent over phone, consent form was also emailed and consent was confirmed on first log-in to the portalYParticipants assigned ID; password-protected portalAutomated and manual reminder messages were sent to encourage completion of baseline and all follow-up surveys$20 at baseline, $30 after 3 months, $40 after 6 months, $50 after 12 months (all mailed or electronic gift cards)Access to a safe computer, safe email and secure mailing addressNM (non-phone)Quick exit button; information was provided about using private modes in internet browsers
Hatch et al25NM: consent obtainedNMNMNMNMNNMParticipants reminded via texts of opt-out options
Senn and Forrest35Remote: consent obtained through emailed linkYPersonal codes given on enrolmentUp to 4 reminders via call, text and/or emailsBonus points in class for first two surveys; and gift card ($10 in first year, $20 in second year) OR additional bonus points for completion of 4-month surveyNMNMNM
Tarzia et al33Remote: consent obtained via websiteYPlatform and intervention were username and password protectedWomen provided the name and number/email of 1–2 safe contacts when enrolling so new contact information could be obtained in case the participant relocated. 3 automatic reminder emails, 1 SMS reminder, 1 phone call reminderMaximum of $A150 electronic gift vouchers for completing baseline, 6-month and 12-month follow-up data collectionAccess to safe computer, internet connection, and willing to provide full name, address, email, and contact information for safe contactsParticipant contacted at a safe time; email communication with participant referenced ‘women’s health study’. Intervention home page did not mention domestic violenceWebsite designed with quick escape button, when used, a new browser opens to prevent clicking ‘back’; instructions to clear search history, private web browsing; using safe email address
Glass et al24Remote: consent could be given verbally over phone, or via email by checking an electronic checkboxYPassword protection and PIN code; study data were kept separate from personal identifiersAutomated and 3 manual reminder emails; phone/text reminders (5 attempts and 3 messages); participants contacted at 2, 4, 8, 10 months to confirm contact information and safetyBaseline: $20;
6 months: $30;
12 months: $50.
Total of $100 for 3 hours of participant time
Access to a safe computer or internet and a safe email and phone number that was inaccessible to abuserNM (non-phone)Guidance on safe use of internet, private mode, browsing history; potential risks of creating a study email explained; limitations of deleting apps from purchase history; instructed to remove app after intervention
Sabri et al32NM: consent obtainedYPassword, username and PINAutomatic email/text reminders to women who did not complete sessionsBaseline: $20;
3 months: $25;
6 months: $30;
12 months: $40
Access to safe technology, computer or smartphone, that has internet accessAll communication refers to general women’s health; all study information, including links, password, username and PIN were sent to participants’ secure emailExplained how to access information via secured email; participants advised on password protection and clearing history; option to use 0000 password if abuser forces participant to open website—if used, screen shows innocuous page; only PIN code screen shown if anyone else logs into website
  • NA, not applicable; NM, not mentioned in article.