Table 5

Summary of inputs and outputs from pandemic preparedness metrics

InputOutput
FundingDataValidationFormAudiencePotential bias
e-SPARn/aSelf-reportingNone
(no WHO mandate)
Coloured spreadsheetWHO officials, global health policymakersInaccuracies
JEEGates Foundation for start-up costs, then countries sending experts, and WHOCountry self-assessment, and external expert assessment during visitExperts in the mission team then reporting to the WHO on basis of a templateLengthy policy reports, including scores (not available in a dataset format)Donors, domestic health policymakersCognitive closure and groupthink
GHSIGates Foundation, Open Philanthropy Project, Robertson FoundationPublicly available information collected by the Economist Intelligence UnitCoders at Johns Hopkins and Nuclear Threat Initiative, following deliberations and on the basis of scoresheetColoured rankings and tableDomestic politicians, donors, mediaBlind spots
  • e-SPAR, Electronic State Parties Self-Assessment Annual Reporting Tool; GHSI, Global Health Security Index; JEE, Joint External Evaluation.