Table 4

Factors associated with overall placental malaria parasitaemia at delivery

FactorsOverall placental infectionUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Total (N=1642) nPresent
(N=191)
n (%)
Absent
(N=1451)
n (%)
cOR95% CIP valueaOR95% CIP value
Age, years
 <25556116 (60.7)440 (30.3)3.552.60 to 4.85<0.0011.771.18 to 2.650.01
 ≥25108675 (39.3)1011 (69.7)11
Education
 No education35433 (17.3)321 (22.1)0.920.57 to 1.480.131.090.61 to 1.910.23
 Primary27133 (17.3)238 (16.4)1.240.76 to 2.011.310.77 to 2.25
 Junior high60083 (43.4)517 (35.6)1.430.97 to 2.131.500.97 to 2.31
 High school or above41742 (22.0)375 (25.9)11
Household SES
 Most poor31059 (30.9)251 (17.3)3.001.80 to 4.92<0.0012.471.40 to 4.35<0.001
 More poor32745 (23.6)282 (19.4)2.021.20 to 3.401.600.91 to 2.81
 Poor33634 (17.8)302 (20.8)1.430.83 to 2.461.220.69 to 2.18
 Less poor34129 (15.2)312 (21.5)1.180.67 to 2.071.050.59 to 1.88
 Least poor32824 (12.5)304 (21.9)11
Marital status
 Married/married before1211114 (59.7)1097 (75.6)1<0.00110.33
 Living together with man, unmarried24533 (17.3)212 (14.6)1.500.99 to 2.271.170.75 to 1.84
 Single, unmarried18644 (23.0)142 (9.8)2.982.02 to 4.401.400.86 to 2.17
Gravidity
 Primigravidae35787 (45.5)270 (18.6)4.473.12 to 6.39<0.0012.951.83 to 4.75<0.001
 Secundigravidae40845 (23.6)363 (25.0)1.721.14 to 2.581.400.89 to 2.18
 Multigravidae87759 (30.9)818 (56.4)11
ITN use
 No60566 (34.6)539 (37.2)0.890.65 to 1.230.48
 Yes1037125 (65.4)912 (62.8)1
SP doses received
 ≤18714 (7.3)73 (5.0)1.780.95 to 3.330.011.380.70 to 2.690.13
 231653 (27.8)263 (18.1)1.871.27 to 2.761.631.07 to 2.48
 354957 (29.8)492 (33.9)1.080.74 to 1.561.060.72 to 1.57
 ≥469067 (35.1)623 (42.9)11
Malaria treatment in past 2 weeks
 No1444156 (81.7)1288 (88.8)10.0110.15
 Yes19835 (18.3)163 (11.2)1.771.19 to 2.651.420.89 to 2.27
Malaria treatment during pregnancy
 No1129117 (61.3)1012 (69.7)10.0210.15
 Yes51374 (38.7)439 (30.3)1.461.07 to 1.991.300.90 to 1.87
  • aOR, adjusted OR; cOR, crude OR; ITN, insecticide-treated bednet; SES, socioeconomic status; SP, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine.