Table 3

Reliability of scales by country

EAP reliabilityWeighted kappa statistic brief versus full-length scale
Full-length scaleBrief scale
Physical abuseGhana0.05NANA
Guinea0.11NANA
Myanmar0.08NANA
Nigeria0.24NANA
Verbal abuseGhana0.500.43NA
Guinea0.470.41NA
Myanmar0.350.29NA
Nigeria0.610.520.90 (0.87, 0.92)
Failure to meet professional standards of careGhana0.850.690.68 (0.64, 0.72)
Guinea0.580.48NA
Myanmar0.790.660.88 (0.85, 0.91)
Nigeria0.850.670.84 (0.80, 0.87)
Poor rapport with healthcare workersGhana0.740.740.95 (0.94, 0.96)
Guinea0.790.790.97 (0.96, 0.97)
Myanmar0.670.690.88 (0.86, 0.91)
Nigeria0.770.780.89 (0.87, 0.91)
Health system conditions and constraintsGhana0.640.590.95 (0.93, 0.97)
Guinea0.520.48NA
Myanmar0.430.46NA
Nigeria0.240.34NA
  • EAP, expected a posteriori; NA, not applicable.