Table 2

Items considered for analysis and items included in final item sets

Items for initial analysis based on original community survey toolFinal item sets
Full lengthBrief
Physical abuse

Restrained to bedXX
Forceful downward pressure on abdomenXX
Verbal abuse

Shouted atXX
Hissed atX
Negative comments about woman’s physical appearance *
Negative comments about baby’s physical appearance †
Negative comments about woman’s sexual activityXX
Threatened with a medical procedureX
Threatened with physical violence
Threatened with poor outcomeXX
Threatened with withheld careX
Blamed for something that happenedX
Failure to meet professional standards of careLack of informed consent (any of four procedures)XX
During vaginal exam, private information shared so others could hearX
Vaginal exam conducted in a way that other people could seeXX
Painful vaginal examsX
Pain relief not provided appropriately ‡XX
Ignored by health workers§XX
Neglected by health workers§X
Felt a nuisance §X
Waited long periods §XX
Skilled birth attendant absent when baby bornXX
Poor rapport with healthcare workersHealthcare worker not responsive to questions or concerns §
Lack of emotional support §XX
Healthcare worker did not listen to concerns §XX
Birth companion not allowedXX
Lacked access to water or other fluidsX
Not allowed to eatX
Not told could move during labourXX
Not allowed to give birth in preferred positionX
Detained due to inability to pay bills
Health system conditions and constraintsLack of privacy/curtainsXX
No bed to self during labourX
No bed to self during childbirthX
No bed to self post partumX
Shared a bed at any timeXX
Asked for a bribeXX
Made to clean up after oneselfX
  • *Weight, private parts, cleanliness or other parts of the woman’s body

  • †Appearance, sex or other aspects

  • ‡Not offered, requested and not received, denied

  • §Categorical response options

  • ¶Included for use in Ghana