Table 2

Distribution of MDR iNTS and gyrA mutation (fluoroquinolone resistance) in the sampled countries in sub-Saharan Africa

(number of isolates)
MDR iNTS isolates per serovar*MDR iNTS serovar per country
(%, number)
MDR iNTS per genotype
(%, number)
Typhimurium (n=110)85% (94/110)Burkina Faso (50, 6/12)ST313 (95, 94/99)
Ghana (64, 85/133)ST19 (0, 0/11)
Guinea-Bissau (22, 2/9)
Kenya (100, 1/1)
Enteritidis (n=30)23% (7/30)Burkina Faso (33, 4/12)ST11 (25, 7/28)
Ghana (2, 2/133)
Senegal (50, 1/2)
Dublin (n=18)6% (1/18)Ghana (1, 1/133)ST10 (6, 1/18)
Others (n=8)0% (0/8)n.a.n.a.
(number of iNTS)
Number of MDR iNTS (n=102)% of MDR iNTSgyrA
Burkina Faso (n=12)1010/12 (83)0
Ghana (n=133)8888/133 (66)S83Y (ST313, 2 isolates)
D87G (ST11, 6 isolates)
D87Y (ST11, 2 isolates)
D87N (ST11, 3 isolates)
Guinea-Bissau (n=9)22/9 (22)0
Kenya (n=1)11/1 (100)0
Senegal (n=2)11/2 (50)0
  • *Multidrug resistance (MDR) definition used for the analysis presence of resistant genes for at least one agent in all three antimicrobial categories listed below (detected in this study): ampicillin (blaCTX_M, blaOXA, blaTEM), chloramphenicol (catA1), trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide (sul1, sul2) and trimethoprim (dfrA, dfrA1, dfrA14, dfrA8)).

  • †Refer to table 1 for the number of iNTS isolates per country used as a denominator to calculate the % of MDR per country in this table.

  • ‡The 2 MDR iNTS isolates with gyrA mutation (fluoroquinolone resistance) were yielded from a 1-year-old female infant and a 10-month-old female infant in Agogo in 2011 (TSAP: Typhoid Fever Surveillance Program).

  • §Spv locus was detected in all MDR iNTS isolates.

  • n.a., not available.