Table 1

Questions used to construct primary and secondary outcomes assessed at 29 months postrandomisation (24 months postintervention)

OutcomeQuestions
Physical IPV (primary)
(yes/no)
Reported that her current or any other partner has done at least one of the following things to her in the past 12 months:
  • Slapped her or thrown something at her that could hurt her.

  • Pushed her or shoved her or pulled her hair.

  • Hit her with his fist or something else that could hurt her.

  • Kicked her, dragged her or beat her up.

  • Choked or burnt her on purpose.

  • Threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against her.

Sexual IPV (primary)
(yes/no)
Reported that at least one of the following things has happened to her in the past 12 months:
  • Current or any other partner forced her to have sexual intercourse by threatening her, holding her down or hurting her in some way.

  • She had sexual intercourse when she did not want to because she was afraid that her partner would hurt her or someone she cared about if she refused.

  • She had sexual intercourse when she did not want to because she was afraid that her partner would leave her or take another girlfriend if she refused.

Emotional abuse*
(yes/no)
Reported that her current or any other partner has done at least one of the following things to her in the past 12 months:
  • Insulted her or made her feel bad about herself

  • Belittled or humiliated her in front of other people.

  • Done things to scare or humiliate her on purpose (eg, by the way he looked at her, by yelling and smashing things).

  • Verbally threatened to hurt her or someone she cares about.

Disclosure of IPV (among women who physical and/or sexual IPV in the past 12 months)
(yes/no)
Reported that she has told someone within the past 12 months about her partner’s behaviour (violence/abuse) towards her.
Attitudes accepting of IPV
(yes/no)
Reported that she ‘strongly agrees’ or ‘agrees’ that a man has good reason to hit his wife in at least one of the following scenarios:
  • She does not complete her household work to his satisfaction.

  • She disobeys him.

  • She refuses to have sexual intercourse with him.

  • She protests because he has other girlfriends.

  • He suspects that she is unfaithful in marriage.

  • He finds out that she has been unfaithful in marriage.

Believes a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family togetherReported that she ‘strongly agrees’ or ‘agrees’ with the statement:
‘A woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together’
Believes IPV is a private matterReported that she ‘strongly agrees’ or ‘agrees’ with the statement:
‘Violence between husband and wife is a private matter and others should not intervene.’
  • *High intensity emotional abuse defined as having experienced at least one of the items many times in the past 12 months.

  • IPV, intimate partner violence.