Table 4

Intervention implementation, knowledge of HIV care and prevention services, and social harms and stigma by arm

HIVST interventionSOC
n/NOverall %Cluster geometric mean %n/NOverall %Cluster geometric mean %
 Ever used ST (% population)657/249726.32084/24623.42.0
 Used HIVST in past 12 months (% population)585/249323.51764/24592.61.5
CBD implementation in households
 Ever heard of HIVST (% population)1462/25205854.4700/247428.325
 Reported CBD in community (% heard of HIVST)981/145967.262.7113/69516.314.2
 Reported CBD in home (% reported CBD in community)608/97962.155.936/11331.943.5
 CBD left HIVST in household (% reported CBD in home)456/6087568.421/3658.351.4
 Respondent used HIVST (% with HIVST left in household)369/4567582.117/218181.4
Know where to access HIV care and prevention services
 Know where to access follow-up HIV care (% population)1979/251578.778.11805/246973.172.5
 Know where to access VMMC services (% uncircumcised men, N=1409)438/71761.162.7400/69657.553.5
Social harms and benefits
 Forced to test (% ever testers)43/19462.22.123/18021.31.1
 Forced to disclose results (% testers, extended sample)13/11901.11.312/10841.11.0
 Regret testing immediately afterward (% testers)164/19468.47.5137/18027.66.2
 Any IPV (% women, extended sample n=685)61/30719.917.182/33224.721.2
 Any stigma (agreed with at least 1 of 11 items) (% population, extended sample)230/56640.640.5228/56940.139.6
  • Missing outcome data: 23 respondents’ missing information on self-testing in past 12 months; 16 missing ever self-testing; 11 missing heard of self-testing; 8 missing CBD in community; 2 missing CBD in household; 21 missing know where to access follow-up care; 11 men missing response on circumcision follow-up; 163 respondents missing response on forced to test and regret testing; 25 women declined to answer all IPV questions; 10 respondents declined to answer all stigma questions. The extended sample was a random subsample of approximately 20% of participants who were asked more detailed questions on stigma, IPV and social harms (total N for extended subsample=1145).

  • CBD, community-based distributor; HIVST, HIV self-testing; IPV, intimate partner violence; SOC, standard of care; VMMC, voluntary medical male circumcision.