Table 2

Primary and secondary outcomes by trial group

HIVST interventionSOCUnadjustedAdjustedk
n/N% or rate/000Cluster geometric mean %n/N% or rate/000Cluster geometric meanRisk ratio(95% CI)P valueRisk ratio(95% CI)P value
Primary trial outcome:
recent HIV testing
1626/247265.863.41452/242260.058.71.08(0.91 to 1.29)0.1521.08(0.94 to 1.25)0.2240.21
Secondary trial outcomes
Ever tested for HIV2013/250080.579.51898/246477.076.51.04(0.92 to 1.18)0.3991.04(0.92 to 1.18)0.4080.13
HIV testing during intervention1348/250053.952.11287/246452.251.01.02(0.84 to 1.24)0.6741.02(0.87 to 1.21)0.7280.24
Current ART use (% PLHIV)33/4376.768.113/2065.062.31.01(0.58 to 1.77)0.2280.96(0.76 to 1.21)0.657
ART initiation2826/148 54119.03482/155 43322.40.90(0.55 to 1.46)0.666
Circumcised (% men not circumcised 12 months prior to interview)23/9492.42.813/9041.41.721.48(0.08 to 28.38)0.1961.55(0.61 to 3.92)0.2800.38
  • Missing data: 101 respondents’ missing information on recent testing; 41 respondents’ missing information on ever testing and testing during intervention.

  • Adjusted for age in years (16–19 years. 20–24 years., 25–29 years., 30–39 years., 40–49 years., 50–59 years., 60+ years), assets index in tertiles and pair.

  • Note that there were too few respondents to calculate k for current ART use.

  • ART model is adjusted for pair and average ART initiations per clinic before the beginning of the self-testing intervention. ART initiation was log-transformed for analysis and exponentiated OLS coefficients are reported above.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; HIVST, HIV self-testing; OLS, ordinary least squares; PLHIV, people living with HIV; SOC, standard of care.