Table 3

Effect of CBD incentive on linkage to additional care and uptake of self-testing

Conditional incentiveNo incentivePrevalence ratioPrevalence differenceP valuekN
n/N%n/N%95% CI95% CI
Primary outcome
 Linkage to any services1062/369828.71075/344831.20.94
(0.86 to 1.03)
−0.017
(−0.042 to 0.007)
0.170.057146
Secondary outcomes and post-hoc analyses
 Uptake of self-testing1770/369847.91823/344852.90.91
(0.80 to 1.02)
−0.048
(−0.109 to 0.012)
0.1160.057146
 Uptake of PSI outreach services94/17705.3106/18235.80.92
(0.68 to 1.24)
−0.005
(−0.021 to 0.012)
0.570.383593
 Uptake of VMMC among men19/8542.212/8531.41.76
(0.77 to 4.03)
0.01
(−0.005 to 0.024)
0.1860.741707
 Uptake of confirmatory testing for reactive self-tests88/15756.172/13254.51.02
(0.82 to 1.28)
0.011
(−0.100 to 0.122)
0.845*289
 Post-hoc analysis: uptake of confirmatory testing for reactive self-tests if not already on ART and or in HIV care25/3375.820/40501.59
(1.05 to 2.39)
0.256
(0.042 to 0.470)
0.01973
 Initiation of ART among all participants who reported a reactive self-test result15/1579.612/1329.11.03
(0.50 to 2.15)
0.003
(−0.064 to 0.070)
0.9321.36289
 Post-hoc analysis: uptake of ART among HIV-positive participants not previously in HIV care (ie, excluding those participants already on ART)15/3345.512/40301.52
(0.48 to 4.81)
0.151
(−0.168 to 0.470)
0.35473
  • Adjusted models include adjustment for educational attainment (none/primary, some secondary, O-levels complete, A-levels and above), household food insecurity (moderate/severe food insecurity, no/mild food insecurity) and high SSQ (Shona Symptom Questionnaire) score (nine or higher).

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; CBD, community-based distributors; PSI, Population Services International; VMMC, voluntary medical male circumcision .