Table 2

Key recommendations

Demand side interventionsSupply side interventions
  • Key recommendation (KR) 1: Engagement with community values and practices around antibiotics

  • KR2: Increase awareness of existing direct pathways to primary healthcare and prescribers

  • KR3: Investment in marketing appropriate alternatives to antibiotics, emphasising alternatives with qualities valued in antibiotics: efficacy, strength, affordability, accessibility (eg, paracetamol for fever and pain relief; oral rehydration salts for diarrhoea)

  • KR4: Mass communication campaign engaging with influential figures and social networks at various levels (eg, national, regional, commune), involving community ‘champions’ who are considered influential to promote key messages.

  • KR5: Enforcement of regulatory legislation, including regulations requiring prescription-based dispensing and registration of pharmacies

  • KR6: Implementation of health system reforms to improve affordability of primary care, aimed at reducing direct and indirect costs

  • KR7: Incentivisation of improved access to qualified prescribers, for example, after-hours care in community-based primary healthcare centres

  • KR8: Incentivisation of promotion of appropriate alternatives to antibiotics to relieve the symptoms of common illnesses