Table 1

Baseline characteristics of clusters included in the trial

Cluster-level characteristicOverall n=77RACD n=38rfMDA n=39
Transmission intensity and control measures, mean (95% CI)
 September 2012–August 2015 (3 years preceding study)
  Cumulative incidence of all cases5.36 (3.80 to 6.92)4.19 (2.93 to 5.45)6.50 (3.65 to 9.35)
  Cumulative incidence of local cases4.03 (3.22 to 4.84)3.33 (2.17 to 4.49)4.70 (3.57 to 5.83)
  Proportion of cases classified as imported*32.1 (25.2 to 38.9)35.8 (24.4 to 47.2)28.5 (20.4 to 36.6)
 July 2014–August 2015 (14 months preceding study†)
  Cumulative incidence of all cases3.19 (2.22 to 4.16)2.63 (1.39 to 3.86)3.73 (2.21 to 5.26)
  Cumulative incidence of local cases2.45 (1.57 to 3.33)1.81 (0.62 to 3.00)3.07 (1.75 to 4.39)
  Proportion of cases classified as imported‡41.0 (30.1 to 51.9)48.0 (30.5 to 65.5)34.8 (20.7 to 48.9)
Population characteristics, mean (95% CI)
 Size2715 (2275 to 3156)2752 (2086 to 3418)2680 (2070 to 3289)
Ecological factors, median (range)
 Rainfall, mm§65.9 (36.9 to 92.6)64.8 (39.6 to 92.6)66.7 (36.9 to 89.0)
 EVI§0.29 (0.19 to 0.44)0.28 (0.21 to 0.39)0.29 (0.19 to 0.44)
 Elevation, m368 (147 to 852)377 (170 to 589)355 (147 to 852)
 Daytime LST, °C§31.2 (28.3 to 35.7)31.4 (28.4 to 35.2)31.1 (28.3 to 35.7)
  • Incidences are cases per 1000 population.

  • *Sample size (n) for overall, RACD and rfMDA were 74, 36 and 38 clusters, respectively.

  • †Because the National Malaria Programme’s annual reports extend from July to June, this period is included in the baseline data for the 14 months preceding the trial.

  • ‡Sample size (n) for overall, RACD and rfMDA were 52, 25 and 27 clusters, respectively.

  • §Mean monthly values September 2015–August 2017.

  • EVI, Enhanced Vegetative Index; LST, land surface temperature; RACD, reactive case detection; rfMDA, reactive focal mass drug administration.