Table 3

UPFI instrumental strategies and techniques with substantiating evidence from interviews and document/literature searches10

StrategyDefinitionTechniqueSupportive evidence
InterviewsInternal documentsLiterature
Coalition managementBuilding or managing alliances with other corporations or societal actors to establish alternative platforms for arguments or routes for accessHarnessing access to Member StatesIO-1, IO-2, IO-3, IO-4, ex-IO-1, ex-IO-2, CS-2, CS-3, CS-4, CS-5, CS-6, CS-7, CS-8, CS-9 55–57 153 154 58 59 72 155–157
Engaging in business coalitionsIO-2, IO-4, ex-IO-2, CS-1, CS-4, CS-6, CS-7, CS-9 57 60 154 56 58 59 72 74 89 105
Working through science/policy intermediariesIO-3, ex-IO-1, ex-IO-2, CS-1, CS-2, CS-7, CS-8 57 78 101 102 158 17 56 58 59 79 80 84 89 159
Co-opting civil societyIO-3, ex-IO-1, ex-IO-2, CS-5, CS-6, CS-7, CS-8, CS-9 38 89
Hiring former WHO staffCS-1 89
Involvement and influence in policymakingGaining or maintaining access to, and seeking representation or involvement in policymaking, including direct lobbying of policymakersParticipating in WHO processesIO-1, IO-2, IO-3, IO-4, ex-IO-1, ex-IO-2, CS-1CS-4, CS-5, CS-6, CS-8 60 38 56 58 59 74 75 89
Intimidating policymakersEx-IO-1, ex-IO-2, IO-4
Information managementSponsoring, producing or disseminating favourable information while suppressing and undermining unfavourable informationSponsoring or disseminating favourable informationIO-1, ex-IO-1, ex-IO-2, CS-1, CS-2 60 56 59 80 89 159
Challenging or undermining unfavourable informationIO-1, CS-5 60 56 58 59 74 79 80
Managing own image/engaging in corporate social responsibility activitiesIO-1, IO-2, CS-6, CS-7 106 89 105 107
  • CS, civil society; IO, international organisation; UPFI, ultra-processed food industry.