Table 2

Characteristics of pneumococcal carriage samples by year, Vientiane, Lao PDR, December 2013–June 2019

2013–201420152016201720182019
Pneumococcal carriage prevalence*, n/N (%)156/359 (43.5)117/321 (36.4)90/286 (31.5)81/229 (35.4)42/164 (25.6)47/126 (37.3)
Vaccine-type (VT) pneumococcal carriage prevalence*, n/N (%)81/344 (23.6)47/309 (15.2)29/275 (10.6)26/217 (12.0)5/154 (3.3)0/116 (0.0)
Non-vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage prevalence*, n/N (%)70 (20.3)67 (21.7)54 (19.6)47 (21.7)27 (17.5)37 (31.9)
Percentage of lytA positive samples, serotype unknown†, n/N (%)15/156 (9.6)12/117 (10.3)11/89 (12.4)12/81 (14.8)10/42 (23.8)10/47 (21.3)
Percentage of pneumococcal single-serotype samples with at least one AMR gene, n/N (%)95/127 (74.8)61/86 (70.9)49/66 (74.2)47/57 (82.5)22/28 (78.6)19/30 (63.3)
  • *Pneumococcal carriage was defined as detection of any pneumococcus, including samples that were lytA positive and serotype unknown. However, lytA positive samples with an unknown serotype were excluded from VT and NVT carriage prevalence estimates.

  • †Serotypes were either unknown due to the sample being culture negative (n=71) or unable to be serotyped due to repeated technical difficulties with the DNA extraction (n=1)).

  • Lao PDR, Lao People’s Democratic Republic.