Table 1

Participant characteristics by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) status, Lao PDR, December 2013–June 2019

TotalPCV13 vaccination status, n (%)*
Undervaccinated†VaccinatedMissing vaccination status
N=1485*N=492N=757N=236
Median age in months, (IQR)15.0 (8.0–26.0)18.0 (6.0–32.0)14.0 (9.0–22.0)18.0 (9.0–27.0)
Age group, n (%)
2–11 months590 (39.7)198 (40.2)314 (41.5)78 (33.1)
12–35 months466 (31.4)102 (20.7)285 (37.6)79 (33.5)
36–59 months429 (28.9)192 (39.0)158 (20.9)79 (33.5)
Male, n (%)825 (55.6)261 (53.0)441 (58.3)123 (52.1)
Year of enrolment, n (%)
2013‡6 (0.4)4 (0.8)2 (0.3)0 (0.0)
2014353 (23.8)219 (44.5)105 (13.9)29 (12.3)
2015321 (21.6)113 (23.0)162 (21.4)46 (19.5)
2016286 (19.3)73 (14.8)155 (20.5)58 (24.6)
2017229 (15.4)36 (7.3)145 (19.2)48 (20.3)
2018164 (11.0)33 (6.7)109 (14.4)22 (9.3)
2019126 (8.5)14 (2.8)79 (10.4)33 (14.0)
Wet season, n (%)748 (50.4)252 (51.2)365 (48.2)131 (55.5)
Urban§, n (%) (N=1482)1413 (95.3)465 (94.5)731 (96.9)217 (91.9)
Kindergarten attendance, n (%) (N=1477)329 (22.3)113 (23.3)150 (19.8)66 (28.1)
Median no of other children <5 years in house, (IQR) (N=1476)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)
Family income per month, n (%) (N=1476)
250 00074 (5.0)47 (9.6)20 (2.7)7 (3.0)
 ₭250 001–1 000 000 kip301 (20.4)155 (31.6)109 (14.5)37 (15.9)
 ₭1 000 001–3 000 000591 (40.0)201 (41.0)294 (39.0)96 (41.4)
 ₭3 000 001–5 000 000380 (25.7)69 (14.1)245 (32.5)66 (28.4)
>5 000 000130 (8.8)18 (3.7)86 (11.4)26 (11.2)
Maternal education (completion of primary school), n (%) (N=1345)1083 (80.5)342 (73.2)577 (85.9)164 (79.6)
Piped water source, n (%) (N=1483)843 (56.8)245 (49.8)467 (61.8)131 (55.7)
Wood or charcoal used for cooking fuel, n (%) (N=1178)1029 (87.4)248 (81.8)597 (89.6)184 (88.0)
Smoker in the house, n (%) (N=1471)632 (43.0)200 (41.6)321 (42.5)111 (47.2)
Pneumonia categories, n (%)¶ (N=1467)
Acute respiratory infection
 (not pneumonia)
574 (39.1)180 (36.9)298 (39.8)96 (41.7)
Pneumonia (not severe)417 (28.4)127 (26.0)222 (29.6)68 (29.6)
Severe pneumonia476 (32.4)181 (37.1)229 (30.6)66 (28.7)
Pre-admission antibiotics**, n (%) (N=1432)766 (53.5)264 (55.6)397 (54.0)105 (47.3)
Received antibiotics in hospital, n (%) (N=1453)1266 (87.1)430 (88.8)638 (86.1)198 (86.8)
Comorbidities, n (%)165 (11.1)51 (10.4)87 (11.5)27 (11.4)
Pneumococcal carriage prevalence††, n (%)532 (35.8)180 (36.6)261 (34.5)91 (38.6)
Vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage prevalence††, n (%) (N=1415)188 (13.3)87 (18.8)70 (9.6)31 (13.7)
Non-vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage prevalence††, n (%) (N=1415)302 (21.3)77 (16.7)170 (23.4)55 (24.3)
Percentage of lytA positive samples, serotype unknown‡‡, n (%) (N=532)462 (86.8)150 (83.3)231 (88.5)81 (89.0)
Percentage of pneumococcal single-serotype samples with at least one AMR gene, n (%) (N=394)293 (74.4)100 (78.7)137 (69.2)56 (81.2)
  • *N=1485 unless otherwise specified in the first column.

  • †Undervaccinated defined as less than one dose received under 12 months of age and no doses ≥12 months of age.

  • ‡Recruitment started in December 2013.

  • §Categorised as urban if the village falls within Vientiane Capital.

  • ¶WHO 2013 definition.

  • **Parent report.

  • ††Pneumococcal carriage was defined as detection of any pneumococcus, including samples that were lytA positive and serotype unknown. However, lytA positive samples with an unknown serotype were excluded from VT and NVT carriage prevalence estimates.

  • ‡‡Serotypes were either unknown due to the sample being culture negative (n=71) or unable to be serotyped due to repeated technical difficulties with the DNA extraction (n=1)).

  • Lao PDR, Lao People’s Democratic Republic.