Table 3

Frequently defined facets of ‘Global Health’ with exemplary definitions

Defined dimensions of global health (GH)No. of publications defining this dimensionOne exemplary definition for each dimension
GH governance12Global health governance refers to ‘trans-border agreements of initiatives between states and/or non-state actors to the control of public health and infectious disease and the protection of people from health risks or threats’, it involves multilateral and bilateral agencies, scientific and public health epistemic communities, private philanthropists, the private sector and public–private initiatives, and a range of community and international non-governmental organisations.52
GH diplomacy3There is also growing activity in the field of global health diplomacy which ‘brings together the disciplines of public health, international affairs, management, law and economics and focuses on negotiations that shape and manage the global policy environment for health’. It encompasses interdisciplinary study of the two-way relationship between diplomacy and foreign policy on the one hand and health on the other and promotes education of diplomats in global health together with educational initiatives to improve mutual understanding with a special focus on the negotiation process—particularly the interface between technical and political issues that arise in global health agreement.95
GH education14We propose an accepted definition of paediatric GH tracks as ‘a longitudinal area of concentration dedicated to global child health, offered within a residency program, which includes a formal curriculum and mentorship with required scholarly output for a defined cohort of pediatric residents’.74
GH security6The WHO defines global health security as: The activities required, both proactive and reactive, to minimise vulnerability to acute public health events that endanger the collective health of national populations, as well as collective health of populations living across geographical regions and international boundaries.41
GH network2Global health networks are webs of individuals and organisations linked by a shared concern to address a condition that affects or potentially affects a sizeable portion of the world’s population.41
GH actor1Accordingly, a global health actor is defined as an individual or organisation that operates transnationally with a primary intent to improve health.54
GH ethics1A new shared paradigm for global health ethics would increase capacity for all decision-makers involved in global health research and practice by combining moral and scientific starting points for research with a more comprehensive relationship model inclusive of solidarity and social justice.69
Academic GH2We propose the following definition of academic global health: within the normative framework of human rights, global health is a system-based, ecological and transdisciplinary approach to research, education and practice which seeks to provide innovative, integrated and sustainable solutions to address complex health problems across national boundaries and improve health for all.67
GH social justice1Defining attributes of social justice in global health include (a) equity in opportunity for health, and (b) caring and cooperative societal relationships.61