Table 3

Clinical and pathological features of the cases with malaria as a contributor to death, in patients who died of other diseases

CaseAgeSexAge groupOrigin*Malaria † seasonalityHIVHaematocrit/
rapid test
Cause of deathEvidence of malaria at
Detected by MIA
Patients with severe anaemia (malaria as a possible contributor to death)
87MChildren 6—15RuralHighHIV23/70Negative/ negativeBurkitt lymphomaPCR parasitaemia (low)Yes (PCR parasitaemia, low)
910MChildren 6—15UrbanHigh9/30Negative/ negativeSepsis due to Gram-negative bacteriaPCR parasitaemia (low)Yes (PCR parasitaemia, low)
1110MChildren 6—15RuralHigh9/20Negative/ negativeSepsis due to Gram-negative bacteriaHaemozoin in liver, lung and spleenNo
152MChildren u-5UrbanHighHIV21/70NA/negativeSepsis (Gram-negative bacteria)Haemozoin in liver and spleenYes (haemozoin in liver and spleen)
1627FMaternal deathUrbanHighHIV18/60Negative/NAGenital tract infection following abortionHaemozoin in lungNo
1727FMaternal deathUrbanHighHIV14/50Negative/NALiver failureHaemozoin in spleenNo
1927FMaternal deathUrbanHigh18/60NA/negativeObstetric haemorrhageHaemozoin in liverYes (haemozoin in liver)
Patients with mild to moderate anaemia or with no available data (malaria as associated condition)
70FNeonateUrbanHigh41/140NA/NANeonatal sepsis, congenital malariaPCR parasitaemia (107,167)Yes (PCR parasitaemia, 107,167)
104MChildren u-5UrbanLow28/90Negative/ negativeEncephalitisHaemozoin in liver and spleenYes (haemozoin in liver and spleen)
1413MChildren 6—15UrbanHigh41/130NA/negativeSepsis (Streptococcus pneumoniae)Haemozoin in liver and spleenYes (haemozoin in liver and spleen)
126FChildren 6—15UrbanHigh33/110Negative/NAEncephalitisHaemozoin in liver and spleenYes (haemozoin in liver and spleen)
134MChildren u-5RuralLow30/100NA/NABurkitt lymphomaHaemozoin in liverYes (haemozoin in liver)
1832FMaternal deathUrbanHighNANA/NAObstetric haemorrhageHaemozoin in liverYes (haemozoin in liver)
  • *Urban usually corresponds to Maputo city, whereby malaria incidence is generally low. Rural implies other areas where malaria incidence tends to be higher.

  • †Seasonality for malaria is high during the rainy season (October to May), and low during the dry season (June to September).

  • F, female; M, male; MIA, minimally invasive autopsy; NA, not available; u-5, under 5 years of age.