Table 3

Baseline and endline values for infection prevention and control measures of primary healthcare facilities in eight countries (significant differences are noted in bold font)*

Indicator, country (n, number of health facilities)Baseline value, % (95% CI)Endline value, % (95% CI)Difference, % (95% CI)
Functional handwashing stations or ABHR available and usable at each point of care
Angola (n=28)96.3 (89.2 to 103.4)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)3.7 (–3.4 to 10.8)
Eswatini (n=30)96.7 (90.2 to 103.1)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)3.3 (–3.1 to 9.8)
Lesotho (n=21)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 o 100.0)0
Liberia† (n=74)77.0 (67.4 to 86.6)95.9 (91.5 to 100.4)18.9 (8.3 to 29.5)
Malawi (n=41)87.8 (77.8 to 97.8)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)12.2 (2.2 to 22.2)
Nigeria‡ (n=1281)74.8 (72.4 to 77.2)76.9 (74.7 to 79.2)2.2 (–1.1 to 5.4)
South Sudan (n=19)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)0
Uganda (n=521)91.0 (88.5 to 93.4)98.5 (97.4 to 99.5)7.4 (4.8 to 10.2)
All facilities (n=2015)80.4 (78.7 to 82.2)84.6 (83.0 to 86.2)4.2 (1.8 to 6.5)
ABHR available at time of site visit§
Angola (n=30)76.7 (61.5 to 91.8)66.7 (49.8 to 83.5)–10.0 (–32.7 to 12.7)
Eswatini (n=32)81.3 (67.7 to 94.8)84.4 (71.8 to 97.0)3.1 (–15.3 to 21.6)
Lesotho (n=21)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)0
Liberia (n=74)20.3 (11.1 to 29.4)78.4 (69.0 to 87.8)58.1 (45.0 to 71.2)
Malawi (n=42)46.3 (31.1 to 61.6)61.0 (46.0 to 75.9)14.6 (–6.7 to 36.0)
Nigeria (n=1281)75.8 (73.4 to 78.1)79.5 (77.3 to 81.7)3.7 (5.2 to 6.9)
All facilities (n=1480)72.7 (70.4 to 75.0)79.1 (77.0 to 81.1)6.4 (3.4 to 9.4)
Medical/surgical masks available at time of site visit§
Angola (n=30)80.0 (65.7 to 94.3)90.0 (79.3 to 100.7)10.0 (–7.8 to 27.9)
Eswatini (n=32)39.4 (42.4 to 76.4)96.9 (90.8 to 102.9)37.5 (19.4 to 55.6)
Lesotho (n=21)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)90.5 (77.9 to 103.0)–9.5 (–22.1 to 3.0)
Liberia (n=74)81.1 (72.2 to 90.0)89.2 (82.1 to 96.3)8.1 (–3.3 to 19.5)
Malawi (n=41)65.9 (51.3 to 80.4)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)34.1 (19.6 to 48.7)
Nigeria (n=1281)43.3 (40.6 to 46.0)33.3 (30.7 to 35.8)10.1 (–13.8 to –6.4)
All facilities (n=1479)48.0 (45.5 to 50.6)41.0 (38.6 to 43.5)–7.0 (–10.5 to –3.4)
Eye protection (face shields or goggles) available at time of site visit§
Angola (n=30)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)37.5 (4.0 to 71.0)37.5 (4.0 to 71.0)
Eswatini (n=32)75.0 (60.0 to 90.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)25.0 (10.0 to 40.0)
Lesotho (n=21)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)0
Liberia (n=74)83.8 (75.4 to 92.2)89.2 (82.1 to 96.3)5.4 (–5.5 to 16.4)
Malawi (n=36)38.9 (23.0 to 54.8)66.7 (51.3 to 82.1)27.8 (5.6 to 49.9)
Nigeria (n=1281)11.4 (9.7 to 13.3)8.0 (6.5 to 9.5)–3.4 (–5.7 to –1.1)
All facilities excluding Nigeria (n=193)18.4 (16.4 to 20.4)16.9 (15.0 to 18.8)–1.5 (–4.3 to 1.2)
Required cleaning supplies available at time of site visit¶
Angola (n=30)73.3 (57.5 to 89.2)83.3 (70.0 to 96.7)10.0 (–10.7 to 30.7)
Eswatini (n=31)93.3 (84.4 to 102.2)96.7 (90.2 to 103.1)3.3 (–7.6 to 14.3)
Lesotho (n=21)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)0
Malawi (n=42)78.6 (66.2 to 91.0)81.0 (69.1 to 92.8)2.4 (–14.8 to 19.6)
Nigeria (n=1281)11.4 (10.0 to 13.1)7.5 (6.1 to 8.9)–3.9 (–6.2 to –1.7)
South Sudan (n=19)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)0
Uganda (n=521)91.0 (88.5 to 93.4)96.2 (94.5 to 97.8)5.2 (2.2 to 8.1)
All facilities (n=1945)38.2 (36.1 to 40.4)36.7 (34.5 to 38.8)–1.6 (–4.6 to 1.5)
Frequently touched surfaces of consultation/examination areas are cleaned and disinfected at least two times per day
Angola (n=30)70.0 (53.6 to 86.4)93.3 (84.4 to 102.3)23.3 (4.7 to 42.0)
Eswatini (n=30)70.0 (53.6 to 86.4)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)30.0 (13.6 to 46.4)
Lesotho (n=21)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)100.0 (100.0 to 100.0)0
Liberia (n=74)31.1 (20.5 to 41.6)95.9 (91.5 to 100.4)64.9 (53.4 to 76.3)
Malawi (n=42)71.4 (57.8 to 85.1)92.9 (85.1 to 100.6)21.4 (5.7 to 37.2)
Nigeria (n=1281)61.8 (59.2 to 64.5)68.1 (65.6 to 70.6)6.3 (2.6 to 9.9)
Uganda (n=521)55.1 (50.8 to 59.4)86.0 (83.0 to 89.0)30.9 (25.7 to 36.1)
All facilities (n=1999)59.8 (57.6 to 61.9)75.4 (73.5 to 77.2)15.6 (12.7 to 18.4)
  • *Not every country reported on each indicator, and even within countries, not every health facility reported on each indicator.

  • †The indicator was availability of hand hygiene stations at all points of care.

  • ‡The indicator was availability of functional handwashing stations.

  • §Values recoded to binary based on different forms of country reporting; availability at the time of visit of >0 items coded as 1.

  • ¶Buckets, mops, cleaning cloths and disinfectant solution (eg, bleach) all available.

  • ABHR, alcohol-based hand rub.