Table 1

Summary of median time between two milestones calculated across all VPDs and Gavi-supported countries

Starting milestoneEnding milestoneMedian time (range), years*IQR, yearsN†
Global-level VPRs
1st milestone per VPD‡1st Gavi-supported country introduction7.4 (5.3, 13.8)5.8–10.16
1st NRA licensure per VPD1st Gavi-supported country introduction5.4 (0.6, 10.8)2.6–6.56
1st WHO PQ per VPD1st Gavi-supported country introduction2.6 (0.2, 4.4)1.2–3.96
1st SAGE Recommendation per VPD1st Gavi-supported country introduction4.6 (3.7, 13.8)4.2–7.26
Gavi Board approval1st Gavi-supported country introduction3.0 (1.3, 7.7)1.8–4.76
1st Gavi-supported country introduction50% of target coverage§ across Gavi cohort6.1 (2.3, 8.2)4.2–7.13,¶**
50% of target coverage§ across Gavi cohort100% of target coverage§ across Gavi cohort7.01¶**
Gavi Board approvalGavi application window opened0.5 (−0.2, 6.2)0.1–0.76
Gavi application window opened1stGavi-supported country introduction1.5 (0.6–4.0)1.3–2.67**
Country-level milestones
Country application submittedCountry application approved0.4 (−0.3, 3.7)0.3–0.7251
Country application approvedVaccine introduction in country1.1 (−1.4, 5.0)0.8–1.6233
Vaccine introduction in countryTarget coverage§ reached in country1.4 (−10.1¶, 5.1)1.1–1.9162‡¶
Country application submittedVaccine introduction in country1.6 (−1.4, 7.1)1.2–2.5291
Country application submittedTarget coverage§ reached in country3.3 (−9.8††, 8.2)2.6–4.6153
Gavi application window openedCountry application submitted2.2 (0.0, 12.3)0.6–4.9334
Country application approvedVIG disbursed0.4 (−6.4, 2.8)0.2–1.0223
VIG disbursedVaccine introduction in country0.5 (−1.9, 7.0)0.3–0.9263
Projected country introductionVaccine introduction in country0.5 (−0.7, 7.1)0.1–1.2282
  • *Times can be negative when the milestones occurred chronologically out of the specified order.

  • †N refers to the number of VPDs analysed at the global level and number of countries analysed at the country level.

  • ‡First chronological milestone—often, but not always the same as the first expected milestone.

  • §Target coverage is defined as within 10% of the country’s own DTP3 rate. Target coverage rates will vary across countries.

  • ¶IPV included in this global-level VPD milestone as it pertains to country-level data.

  • **Only pentavalent, PCV and IPV reached 50% target coverage across the entire Gavi cohort, and only pentavalent reached 100% target coverage across the entire Gavi cohort.

  • ††Extreme negative outliers stem from a country reaching target vaccine coverage using a Hib-containing vaccine prior to switching to pentavalent vaccine.

  • IPV, inactivated polio vaccine; NRA, national regulatory authority (WHO recognised); PCV, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; SAGE, WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization; VIG, vaccine introduction grant; VPD, vaccine-preventable disease; WHO PQ, WHO prequalification.