Table 2

Characteristics of included studies

Study characteristicsNumber of studies
Total included studies146
Year published
 Before 20017
Study type
 Systematic review3
 Retrospective cohort/cross-sectional studies84
 Cohort studies67
 Cross-sectional studies2
 Contact investigations (cohort+cross-sectional)15
 Prospective cohort/cross-sectional studies46*
 Cohort studies20*
 Cross-sectional studies6
 Contact investigations (cohort+cross-sectional)20
 Randomised trials7 studies/9 papers
Included patients living in low-income and middle-income countries31
Care cascade steps
 1 - Intended for testing → initial testing44
 2 - Initially tested → received test result27
 3 - Received test result → referral for evaluation15
 4 - Referral for evaluation → completion of evaluation20
 5 - Completion of evaluation → recommendation for treatment39
 6 - Recommendation for treatment → initiation of treatment47
 7 - Initiation of treatment → completion of treatment105
 1–7 - Entire cascade7
Comparative effectiveness studies targeting retention in the cascade21
  • *One study180 presented results of both a prospective cohort and qualitative/survey analysis.