Table 1

Summary of included studies

ReferenceYearNCountryStudy typePopulationSteps reportedFactors statistically associated with completion in children/adolescentsFactors descriptively associated with completion in children/adolescents
Studies conducted in low-income and middle-income countries
Alavi and Sefidgaran6620085000IranProspective cross-sectionalChild and adolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1,2(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Children refused testing
(−) Concurrent infectious diseases
Albanese et al872015228BrazilRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB5–7
Baliashvili et al502018739GeorgiaProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1(−) Age 5–14 years (vs 0–4 years)
Bamrah et al107201443Federated States of MicronesiaProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious MDR-TB7(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Concurrent infectious diseases
Barss et al432020225 (includes adults)GhanaProspective cohortChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5,6(+) Multimodal solutions targeting knowledge, stigma and cost associated with diagnosis and treatment
Bedoya and Arbeláez Montoya52201470ColombiaProspective cross-sectional/contact investigationChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,7(−) Male sex
(+) Insured
Bonnet et al282017339UgandaProspective cohortChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB1–7
Chakhaia et al161201483GeorgiaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB7
Coprada et al7420161227PhilippinesRetrospective cross-sectional/contact investigationChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,6(−) Transferred care
(−) Only presumptive cases referred for testing
(−) Children in school
(−) Caregivers too busy to bring children to DOTS facility
(−) Transportation costs
(−) Inconsistent supply of TST and medication
(−) Problems with communication between clinic and caregivers
(−) Limited time to conduct home visits for contacts that did not follow-up
Diallo et al932018829Australia, Benin, Brazil, Canada, Ghana, Guinea and IndonesiaRCTChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection5–7(+) Treatment with 4R (vs
9H)
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Pregnancy
Do Nascimento and Sant'Anna1622016158BrazilRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Dorjee et al10220195234IndiaProspective cohortChild and adolescent students undergoing scheduled screening5–7(−) Concurrent infectious diseases
(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Gomes et al2920112631Guinea-BissauProspective cohortChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,6,7(+) Age >5 years (vs age ≤5 ears)(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Travelling
(−) Forgot
(−) Not receiving medication
Hamdi et al112201687TunisiaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB7(+) Near relationship with index case
(+) Close contact with index case
Hosten et al612018210JordanRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChild* and adolescent refugees children exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,2,6(−) Supply shortages
Huang et al5620184724ChinaProspective cross-sectional/contact investigationAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5(−) Lower parental education
(−) Concern about medication adverse effects
(−) Negative opinion provided by outside clinician
(−) Perceived discrimination/stigma
Huerga et al492019198ArmeniaProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious MDR-TB1(−) Caregiver refusal
(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Transferred care
(−) Unable to reach family
Ilievska-Poposka et al163201861North MacedoniaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Khalid et al7520203226SudanProspective cross-sectionalChild and adolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1(−) Absenteeism
(−) Chronic disease
(−) Unwillingness to participate
Li et al1042018560ChinaQualitative/surveyAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB6(Associated with perceived ability to adhere)
(+) Knowledge of TB transmission
(+) Knowledge of TB treatment and policy
Associated with perceived ability to adhere
(+) Concern about spreading TB to others
(+) Contact with cases
(+) Desire to follow physician’s advice
(+) Desire to prevent active TB therapy/ability to adhere
(−) Concerns about cost
(−) Concerns about duration of therapy/stress of taking
(−) Concerns about medication adverse effects
(−) Perceived low risk
Li et al136201642ChinaQualitative/surveyChildren and adolescents with TB infection; caregivers; healthcare workers1(Associated with perceived ability to adhere)
(−) Concerns about medication adverse effects
(−) Lack of patient/caregiver knowledge about testing and treatment
(−) Clinician concerns about cost
(−) Clinician concerns about duration of therapy
(−) Clinician concerns about therapy effectiveness
(−) Workloads and lack of clinician incentives
Machado et al164200947BrazilProspective cohortChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB7
Mendonca et al302016286BrazilRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Place of residence Human
Development Index score
(−) Contact with adult TB contacts not receiving TB treatment
Said et al332019398TanzaniaProspective cohortChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5,6(−) Caregiver refusal
Silva et al8120161078BrazilProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents tested for TB2,3,5–7(+) Knowledge about BCG vaccination preventive effects
(+) Knowledge about TB transmission
(−) Higher cost of transportation to clinic
(−) Lower income
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Soussi et al165201325TunisiaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,6
van Zyl et al342006335South AfricaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB6,7(+) Treatment with 3HR (vs
6H)
(+) Treatment supervised by community supporter or clinic healthcare worker
(vs by caregiver)
Villarino et al352015905USA, Brazil, Canada, China and SpainRCTChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Treatment with 3HP (vs
9H)
(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Physician decision to discontinue treatment
Wang et al6720171 330 041ChinaRetrospective cohortAdolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1,5–7
Wong and Lee792020439MalaysiaProspective cross-sectionalChild* and adolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1–4
Wysocki et al47201668BrazilRetrospective cross-sectional/contact investigationChildren and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,7
Studies conducted in high-income countries
Adams et al1412014Systematic review of systematic reviewsChildren* and adolescents initiating TPT7
Adler-Shohet et al362014118USARetrospective cohortChild students exposed to individuals with infectious MDR-TB1–7(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Ahmad et al372020224DenmarkRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents seeking asylum1–7(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Fear of blood draws
Ahn et al382015108South KoreaProspective cohort/contact investigationNeonates* exposed to an HCW with infectious TB1–7(−) Patient/caregiver refusal to continue therapy
(−) Medical instability/elevated liver enzymes
Al Mekaini et al722014669United Arab EmiratesProspective cross-sectionalChildren* and adolescents receiving outpatient primary care1,2(+) Siblings participating in the study
(−) Age<10 years (vs≥10 years)
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal-
Aldeco et al442011103SloveniaProspective cohort/contact investigationNeonates* exposed to an HCW with infectious TB1,2
Anaraki et al552018291UKProspective cohort/contact investigationAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB1
Assefa et al1062018Systematic reviewChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Treatment with 3RH (vs
6H)
(+) Treatment with 4RH (vs
9H)
Bennet and Eriksson1032017349SwedenRetrospective cohortChild and adolescent immigrants4(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Deemed to be ‘psychologically unfit’ for treatment
Bennet et al1662014546USARetrospective cohortAdolescent refugees6,7
Berlioz et al4620081813FranceProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* receiving outpatient primary care1–6(−) Inability to contact by mail
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Adverse medication effects
Bibi et al65200228 016IsraelRetrospective cohortAdolescent immigrants1–5
Bieberly and Ali13200847USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection7(+) Age <12 years (vs older ages)
Bishara et al882015220IsraelRetrospective cohortChild* and adolescent immigrants5–7(−) Age <5 years
Blumberg et al1672005286USAProspective cohortAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Bock et al41999446USAProspective cohortChildren* and adolescents undergoing TB screening2
Boyd et al101201788AustraliaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection5–7(−) Moved out of catchment
Brassard and Lamarre512000456CanadaProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* exposed to a physician with infectious TB1,4–7(+) Fewer children living in household(−) Inability to contact by mail
(−) Caregiver concerns about treatment
(−) Caregivers' misunderstanding of duration of treatment
(−) Forgetting
(−) Lack of cooperation from child
(−) Concurrent infectious diseases
Brassard et al6820063710CanadaProspective cohortChild* and adolescent immigrants1–4,7(+) More family members undergoing TB testing
(−) Older age at time of screening
(−) Longer time since immigration
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Moved out of catchment
Breuss et al86200234SwitzerlandRetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents seeking asylum4
Bright-Thomas et al1682010334UKRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Calder et al572008491New ZealandProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5,6(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Calzada-Hernandez et al8920153SpainRetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents receiving anti-TNFα therapy5–7
Cass et al14320051582USAProspective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Spanish speaking
(+) Contact investigation
(+) Incentive programme
(−) Clinic location
(−) Missed appointment calls and letters
(−) Referred to a public health nurse
Catho et al169201543FranceRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious MDR-TB7
Chang et al13120131525USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection7(+) Home follow-up (vs clinic follow-up)
Chang et al8320141872USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection4–7(−) Older age
(−) Non-Hispanic race
(−) Adverse medication effects
(−) Transferred care
(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Pregnancy
Cheng et al711997627USARCTChildren* and adolescents receiving outpatient primary care2(+) Education and school form intervention
(+) Nurse visit intervention
(−) Lack of time
(−) Transportation/money barriers
(−) Forgot
(−) Family health problems
Cheng et al170199637USAProspective cohortChildren* and adolescents screened for TB infection2
Christy et al801996401USAProspective cross-sectionalChildren* and adolescents receiving outpatient primary care2
Coly and Morisky1132004610USARCTChildren and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Higher score on medication-taking behaviour index
(+) Living with both parents
Crossa et al114201516 995USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents tested for TB7
Cruz et al109201440USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Medication adverse effects
Cruz and Starke13220131383USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Cruz and Starke1182014404USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Treatment with 4R (vs
9H)
(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Cruz and Starke902012289USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection5–7(+) DOPT (vs SAT)(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Daskalaki et al133201158USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Pregnancy
De Pontual et al91200492FranceRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment5,6
Dewan et al9220065USAProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB5–7
Dobler and Marks119201251AustraliaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Donahue et al12720197USAProspective cohortChildren receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Telemedicine DOPT
Elliot et al94201836AustraliaRetrospective cohortChild* and adolescent refugees5–7(−) Inability to contact families
Erkens et al17120141120The NetherlandsRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection7(−) Transferred care
Erkens et al13420163301The NetherlandsRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection7(−) Medication adverse effects
Fathoala et al1722006130UKRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection7
Feja et al108200851USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving MDR-TB infection treatment7(+) Care at a government health department clinic
(vs non-department of health clinic)
(−) Medication adverse effects
Gaensbauer et al12020181174USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Contact with active TB case
(+) Speaking language common to >5% of TB infection patients
(+) Treatment with 4R (vs
9H)
(−) Medication adverse effect
(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
George et al842011193USAProspective cross-sectionalChildren* who were international adoptees4
Guix-Comellas et al1292017213SpainRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Hatzenbuehler et al392016925USAProspective cohortAdolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1–7
Herchline and Trent632018NDUSARetrospective cohortAdolescent refugees7(+) Age 13–17 years
Higuchi et al173200843JapanProspective cohort/contact investigationChild and adolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB7
Hill et al1352010285USAQualitative/surveyAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Caregiver barriers: lack of knowledge, work conflicts, costs of seeing providers, concerns about medication adverse effects
(−) Clinician-related barriers: lack of knowledge, resistance to recommendations for monthly visits
(−) Limited capacity of local health department to provide TB infection care
(−) Patient barriers: lack of knowledge, difficulty completing baseline health checks and medication adverse effects
Horsburgh et al1102010347Canada and USARetrospective cross-sectionalChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Hovell et al1372003286USAQualitative/surveyAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Adherence coaching
(+) Bicultural
(+) School grades
(+) Younger age
(−) Risk-taking behaviours
Hovell et al1392018263USARCTAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Time spent in adherence counselling sessions
(+) Family encouragement to take therapy
(−) Ran out of medication
Hovell et al1422003286USARCTAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Adherence coaching
(+) Bicultural
(+) Younger age
(−) Risk-taking behaviours
Hwang et al452019269South KoreaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,7
Iroh Tam et al174201013IrelandRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection7
Kaiser et al952015215USAProspective cohort/contact investigationAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB2,5,6
Kim et al532017947South KoreaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5,6
Kohn et al851996864USAProspective cohortAdolescent students undergoing scheduled screening4,7(+) DOPT (vs SAT)(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Kominski et al1152007794USARCT/cost effectivenessChildren and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Living with both parents
(+) Born outside of the USA
Kondo and Ito962003273JapanProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren* exposed to individuals with infectious TB5–7
Korneva et al97201580RussiaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment5–7(−) Caregiver refusal
Kwara et al1212008132USARetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7-
Lardizabal et al1222006348USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Levesque et al1752004NDCanadaRetrospective cohortChild and adolescent refugees1
Li et al1420104119USARetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Treatment with 6R (vs 9H)
Lobato et al1762003578USARetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB6
Lobato et al1772008298USARetrospective cross-sectionalChildren* receiving TB infection treatment7
Loutet et al62201844UKRetrospective cohortChild and adolescent immigrants1
Macaraig et al128201885USARetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Martínez-Roig et al178200373SpainRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection or exposed to individuals with infectious TB7
Milinkovic et al15201893CanadaRetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection6,7
Minodier et al4020104375CanadaProspective cohortChild and adolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1–7(+) Location of origin
(−) Delay between TST and first clinic visit
(−) Household composition
(living with parents plus grandparents; living with non-child relatives)
(−) Age >16 years (vs younger)
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Transferred care
Morisky et al1162001767USARCTChildren and adolescent receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Age <15 years (vs ≥15 years)
(+) Asian ethnicity
(+) Born outside the USA
(+) Clinic location
(+) Higher medication-taking behaviour score
Morisky et al13820035561USARetrospective cohortAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Younger age
(+) Asian ethnicity
Muller et al542008272SwedenProspective cohort/contact investigationChildren and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5,6
Nuzzo et al162015137USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents tested for TB4–7
Olsson et al123201884SwedenRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Page et al1172006254USARetrospective cohortAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Parsyan et al1112007251USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Parvaresh et al41201814AustraliaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* exposed to a physician with infectious TB1–7
Phillips et al592004781USAProspective cohort/contact investigationAdolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5–7(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Plourde et al14520191926CanadaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Treatment with 4R (vs 6H or
9H)
Powell et al1242008545USARetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Location of origin (Eastern
Europe vs others)
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Transferred care
Reichler et al98200252USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB5–7
Rinsky et al73201826USAProspective cohort/contact investigationNeonates* exposed to a patient with infectious TB1,2,6(−) Unable to locate family
Rogo et al312017120USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Female
(+) Interpreter used
(+) Referral from within hospital
(+) Refugee
(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Prior BCG vaccination
Ronald et al14020202359CanadaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Treatment with 4R (vs 9H)
Rubinowitz et al3220143552CanadaRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Sandul et al172017164USAProspective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Refusal of DOPT
Santos et al125202072PortugalRetrospective cohortChildren* receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Age <6 years (vs ≥6
years)
(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) ‘Social problems/family dysfunction’
Saunders et al125201413 584UKRetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB2
Sentis et al17920201524PortugalRetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Seraphin et al1920193150USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
(−) Medication adverse effects
Sipan et al6920038028USAProspective cohortAdolescent students undergoing scheduled screening1,2
Sloot et al772014130The NetherlandsRetrospective cohort/Contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB1
Song et al6020121826South KoreaRetrospective cohort/contact investigationAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB1,5–7
Souder et al1302016108USARetrospective cohort/contact investigationChildren* and adolescents exposed to individuals with infectious TB7
Spicer et al9920131516USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents diagnosed with TB infection5–7(+) Treatment at an offsite clinic (vs hospital clinic)
(+) Younger age
(−) Location of origin
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Spruijt et al180201985The NetherlandsProspective cohort and qualitative/surveyChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Spyridis et al1262007926GreeceRCTChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7(+) Treatment with 4RH (vs
9H)
(−) Early treatment termination by primary care provider
(−) Lack of understanding of administration instructions
(−) Medication adverse effects
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Starr et al181199942AustraliaProspective cohortAdolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Sterling et al1052020Systematic reviewChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Stockbridge et al202018105USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving TB infection treatment7
Taylor et al6420168231USARetrospective cohortChild* and adolescent immigrants receiving TB infection treatment7
Thee et al1002019301GermanyProspective cohortAdolescent refugees5–7(−) Moved out of catchment
Usemann et al7820191462SwitzerlandRetrospective cohortChild and adolescent immigrants2–4(−) Moved out of catchment
van der Heijden et al7020159143USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving outpatient primary care1–3(+) Older age
(+) Race/ethnicity (non-
Hispanic black vs others)
(+) Year of TST placement
Venturini et al1462018441ItalyRetrospective cohortChildren and adolescents receiving treatment
TB infection treatment
7(+) Treatment with 3–4HR (vs
6–9H)
Vivier et al7620061988USARetrospective cohortChildren* tested for TB1,2(+) Head of household not a
US citizen
(+) Primary language other than English
(+) Receiving care at a community health centre or hospital-based clinic
(vs office-based practice)
Wang et al58201072USAProspective cohort/contact investigationAdolescent students exposed to individuals with infectious TB1(−) Moved out of catchment
(−) Patient/caregiver refusal
Young et al822012157USARetrospective cohortChildren* and adolescents receiving outpatient primary care3–7(+) ≥2 well-child checks at health centre prior to TST
(vs 0–1)
(+) Fewer days between TST read and chest X-ray
(+) Younger age
(−) Medication adverse effects
  • (+) Factors associated with increased retention.

  • (−) Factors associated with decreased retention.

  • *Included children <5 years old.

  • DOPT, directly observed preventive treatment; 6H, 6 months of isoniazid; 9H, 9 months of isoniazid; 6–9H, 6–9 months of isoniazid; HCW, healthcare worker; 3HP, 3 months of isoniazid plus rifapentine; 3HR, 3 months of isoniazid plus rifampin; 3–4HR, 3–4 months of isoniazid plus rifampin; IPT, isoniazid preventive treatment; MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; ND, not documented; 4R, 4 months of rifampin; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SAT, self-administered treatment; TB, tuberculosis; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha; TPT, TB preventive treatment; TST, tuberculin skin test.