Table 4

Subgroup analysis by province: effect of the intervention on time spent collecting water, quantity of water collected, quality of water source and quality of sanitation facility

OutcomeProvinceControlInterventionITT95% CI
Time to collect water (min)Kongo Central72508033−19(−51 to 13)
Kasai172471969043(13 to 72)
Kasai Central260926421−61(−95 to −26)
South Kivu2287024059−10(−35 to 16)
Improved water sourceKongo Central720.51800.790.24(−0.06 to 0.53)
Kasai1720.241960.730.49(0.32 to 0.67)
Kasai Central2600.15640.830.75(0.55 to 0.96)
South Kivu2280.862400.930.06(−0.04 to 0.17)
Quantity of water collected (liters)Kongo Central722380230(−14 to 15)
Kasai17231196375(−2 to 12)
Kasai Central260326418−13(−23 to −4)
South Kivu22852240587(−7 to 21)
Improved sanitation facilityKongo Central720.15800.840.68(0.52 to 0.85)
Kasai1720.241960.380.14(−0.05 to 0.33)
Kasai Central2600.05640.800.74(0.58 to 0.90)
South Kivu2280.292400.300.01(−0.11 to 0.12)
  • The model includes controls for the number of villages per cluster. There were 121 clusters in total. Time spent collecting water and total quantity of water collected were Winsorised at the 99th percentile.

  • ITT, intention-to-treat effect estimate.