Table 3

Effect of the intervention on indices of handwashing, sanitation practices, water storage, child health, school attendance, cost of water, water satisfaction, water quality and access, and water governance

IndicesControlInterventionITT95% CI
NMeanNMean
Handwashing7320.005800.610.48(0.25 to 0.71)
Sanitation practices7320.005800.480.28(0.12 to 0.44)
Water storage7320.00580−0.21−0.11(−0.28 to 0.05)
Child health7420.006460.140.04(−0.11 to 0.20)
School attendance7020.00558−0.02−0.09(−0.20 to 0.03)
Financial cost of water7320.005800.140.13(−0.10 to 0.36)
Water satisfaction7320.005800.650.64(0.43 to 0.85)
Water quality and access1830.001450.230.13(−0.18 to 0.44)
Water governance1830.001451.331.33(1.12 to 1.54)
  • The model includes controls for randomisation blocks based on province and number of villages per cluster. Child health also includes controls for sex and age (months). There were 121 clusters in total. Indices are calculated by rescaling each variable in each index (eg, handwashing) so that higher values imply better outcomes, then standardising relative to the control group, following Kling et al37. Effects are in standard deviation units. All indices are calculated at the household level except child health (child level), water quality and access (village level) and water governance (village level).

  • ITT, intention-to-treat effect estimate.