Table 3

Predictors of under 2 years childhood mortality in 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Rwanda

DHS 2005DHS 2010DHS 2015Pooled databasePooled reduced model
AOR95% CIAOR95% CIAOR95% CIAOR95% CIAOR95% CI
Mother HIV status
 HIV negative (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 HIV positive1.93*(1.16 to 3.22)2.66*(1.72 to 4.14)1.64*(0.8 to 3.34)2.16*(1.61 to 2.89)2.09*(1.57 to 2.78)
DHS year
 2005 (ref)1.001.00
 20100.69*(0.57 to 0.83)0.69*(0.59 to 0.81)
 20150.35*(0.27 to 0.44)0.35*(0.28 to 0.44)
Mother’s education level
 No education (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Primary0.73*(0.57 to 0.93)0.71*(0.55 to 0.93)0.91*(0.6 to 1.39)0.75*(0.64 to 0.88)0.74*(0.64 to 0.87)
 Secondary/higher0.49*(0.26 to 0.91)0.53*(0.31 to 0.9)0.77*(0.34 to 1.72)0.54*(0.38 to 0.77)0.53*(0.38 to 0.74)
Marital status
 Not in union (ref)1.001.001.001.00
 In union1.01(0.71 to 1.44)0.93(0.64 to 1.35)1.29(0.79 to 2.11)1.03(0.82 to 1.29)
Mother age at child birth
 Below 24 (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 25–341.29(0.98 to 1.71)1.00(0.74 to 1.35)0.97(0.66 to 1.42)1.09(0.91 to 1.3)1.04(0.87 to 1.26)
 35+1.36(0.96 to 1.93)1.25(0.83 to 1.88)1.87(0.99 to 3.54)1.34(1.05 to 1.72)1.24(0.97 to 1.60)
Mothers occupation
 Not working (ref)1.001.001.001.00
 Skilled work0.79(0.47 to 1.31)0.89(0.52 to 1.52)0.59(0.21 to 1.66)0.77(0.56 to 1.06)
 None skilled work0.92(0.72 to 1.18)0.80(0.52 to 1.25)1.62(0.69 to 3.81)0.93(0.75 to 1.14)
Preceding birth interval
 Below 24 months (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 25–36 months0.63*(0.48 to 0.84)0.44*(0.32 to 0.59)0.63(0.36 to 1.11)0.55*(0.46 to 0.66)0.55*(0.45 to 0.66)
 37–48 months0.59*(0.41 to 0.86)0.41*(0.27 to 0.62)0.54(0.28 to 1.04)0.50*(0.39 to 0.64)0.50*(0.39 to 0.64)
 49+ months0.47*(0.31 to 0.69)0.30*(0.19 to 0.49)0.58(0.32 to 1.04)0.42*(0.32 to 0.56)0.43*(0.33 to 0.55)
 First born0.93(0.65 to 1.33)0.57*(0.41 to 0.78)0.87(0.48 to 1.56)0.73*(0.590.91)0.73*(0.59 to 0.91)
Child is a twin
 No (Ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Yes5.04*(2.99 to 8.49)4.77*(2.78 to 8.20)6.22*(2.79 to 13.89)5.04*(3.58 to 7.09)4.93*(3.51 to 6.92)
No of family members
 1–2 members8.71*(4.57 to 16.61)4.41*(2.37 to 8.21)4.49*(1.87 to 10.78)5.70*(3.81 to 8.52)5.25*(3.59 to 7.68)
 3–5 members3.04*(2.37 to 3.89)1.78*(1.36 to 2.33)2.00*(1.28 to 3.14)2.30*(1.94 to 2.73)2.15*(1.81 to 2.54)
 5+ (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
Modern contraceptive use at time of survey
 Yes (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 No1.54*(1.03 to 2.32)1.37*(1.08 to 1.75)2.31*(1.58 to 3.39)1.61*(1.34 to 1.94)1.66*(1.38 to 1.99)
Residence
 Urban (ref)1.001.001.001.001.00
 Rural1.54*(1.09 to 2.18)1.35(0.89 to 2.03)0.99(0.55 to 1.81)1.39*(1.09 to 1.78)1.47*(1.18 to 1.84)
Source of drinking water
 Nor improved (ref)1.001.001.001.00
 Improved0.92(0.70 to 1.22)0.92(0.72 to 1.18)1.09(0.75 to 1.60)0.95(0.80 to 1.13)
Available treated bed net at household
 No (ref)1.001.001.001.00
 Yes1.05(0.78 to 1.43)1.06(0.80 to 1.40)0.91(0.63 to 1.32)1.01(0.85 to 1.21)
  • *P<0.05.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; DHS, Demographic and Health Survey.