Table 4

Slope index of inequality (SII), high-to-low (richest/poorest—Q5/Q1) ratios and concentration indices (CIX) of health insurance coverage in 36 SSA countries ranked by CIX—any type of health insurance

Any type of health insuranceNational/public health insurancePrivate or employer-provided health insuranceCommunity-based health insurance
SIIQ5/Q1CIX
(95% CI)
SIIQ5/Q1CIX
(95% CI)
SIIQ5/Q1CIX
(95% CI)
SIIQ5/Q1CIX
(95% CI)
Zambia0.223***
(0.195 to 0.250)
0.80***
(0.75 to 0.84)
0.002*
(0.000 to 0.004)
0.63**
(0.25 to 1.00)
0.193***
(0.066 to 0.219)
0.80***
(0.75 to 0.84
0.85***
(0.69 to 1.00)
Malawi0.105***
(0.089 to 0.121)
56.080.80***
(0.53 to 1.07)
0.105***
(0.088 to 0.121)
110.670.82***
(0.54 to 1.08)
Niger0.402***
(0.327 to 0.478)
38.470.79***
(0.63 to 0.95)
0.039***
(0.016 to 0.061)
0.75***
(0.48 to 1.02)
0.92***
(0.67 to 1.17)
0.065***
(0.033 to 0.097)
0.78***
(0.51 to 1.05)
Burkina Faso0.052***
(0.038 to 0.067)
36.380.73***
(0.55 to 0.91)
0.015**
(0.004 to 0.026)
0.79
(0.40 to 1.18)
0.86***
(0.57 to 1.15)
0.016***
(0.010 to 0.023)
13.880.70***
(0.45 to 0.95)
Guinea0.102***
(0.081 to 0.123)
47.730.72***
(0.47 to 0.97)
0.82**
(0.36 to 1.29)
0.085***
(0.066 to 0.105)
59.850.71***
(0.42 to 0.98)
0.007*
(0.001 to 0.012)
13.310.75**
(0.20 to 1.30)
Madagascar0.305***
(0.271 to 0.338)
42.900.72***
(0.60 to 0.84)
0.014*
(0.004 to 0.023)
0.74***
(0.32 to 1.15)
0.240***
(0.006 to 0.375)
36.850.73***
(0.59 to 0.87)
0.072***
(0.053 to 0.092)
0.73***
(0.48 to 0.98)
Zimbabwe0.540***
(0.519 to 0.560)
140.540.71***
(0.69 to 0.73)
0.020***
(0.012 to 0.028)
0.60***
(0.44 to 0.76)
0.477***
(0.056 to 0.598)
174.290.70***
(0.68 to 0.72)
0.070***
(0.056 to 0.085)
34.500.61***
(0.53 to 0.69
Chad0.062***
(0.043 to 0.080)
0.71***
(0.52 to 0.90)
0.97*
(0.10 to 1.84)
0.045***
(0.027 to 0.062)
0.75
(0.50 to 1.00)
0.011***
(0.004 to 0.018)
0.52
(0.22 to 0.82)
Nigeria0.135***
(0.125 to 0.145)
348.000.67***
(0.57 to 0.77)
0.002**
(0.001 to 0.003)
0.54
(−0.17 to 1.25)
0.124***
(0.014 to 0.134)
0.70***
(0.58 to 0.82)
0.013***
(0.010 to 0.016)
0.56***
(0.31 to 0.81)
Cote d'Ivoire0.169***
(0.148 to 0.190)
83.880.66***
(0.50 to 0.82)
0.019***
(0.008 to 0.031)
0.74**
(0.31 to 1.17)
0.062***
(0.049 to 0.174)
45.500.55***
(0.43 to 0.67)
0.118***
(0.096 to 0.140)
0.75***
(0.48 to 1.02)
Benin0.071***
(0.058 to 0.085)
54.570.65***
(0.52 to 0.80)
0.010**
(0.004 to 0.016)
0.79
(0.58 to 0.99)
0.075***
(0.056 to 0.094)
74.000.75***
(0.58 to 0.93)
0.005***
(0.003 to 0.008)
13.330.31**
(0.08 to 0.53)
Lesotho0.094***
(0.073 to 0.116)
0.66***
(0.50 to 0.82)
0.071***
(0.051 to 0.091)
0.67***
(0.51 to 0.83)
0.019**
(0.006 to 0.033)
0.72***
(0.35 to 1.09)
Mali0.265***
(0.238 to 0.292)
10.440.65***
(0.51 to 0.79)
0.014**
(0.004 to 0.023)
111.800.75***
(0.52 to 0.99)
0.085***
(0.066 to 0.204)
0.59***
(0.39 to 0.79)
0.141***
(0.117 to 0.165)
9.310.63***
(0.48 to 0.78)
Namibia0.574***
(0.553 to 0.595)
30.460.63***
(0.57 to 0.69)
0.116***
(0.101 to 0.131)
17.140.35***
(0.27 to 0.43)
0.499***
(0.076 to 0.522)
36.760.64***
(0.58 to 0.70)
South Africa0.441***
(0.409 to 0.473)
19.990.63***
(0.60 to 0.66)
Cameroon0.136***
(0.120 to 0.152)
0.63***
(0.54 to 0.71)
0.033***
(0.024 to 0.043)
0.65***
(0.48 to 0.82)
0.089***
(0.076 to 0.102)
0.64***
(0.53 to 0.74)
0.024***
(0.016 to 0.032)
0.60***
(0.37 to 0.83)
Eswatini0.316***
(0.283 to 0.349)
13.300.63***
(0.59 to 0.67)
0.127***
(0.004 to 0.351)
11.040.50***
(0.42 to 0.58)
Congo Democratic Republic0.193***
(0.175 to 0.210)
16.330.63***
(0.53 to 0.73)
0.002*
(0.000 to 0.004)
0.75**
(0.20 to 1.30)
0.199***
(0.078 to 0.120)
31.250.71***
(0.59 to 0.83)
0.019***
(0.013 to 0.024)
4.640.34***
(0.18 to 0.50)
Sierra Leone0.061***
(0.050 to 0.071)
17.410.55***
(0.49 to 0.61)
0.016***
(0.011 to 0.021)
0.60***
(0.46 to 0.74)
0.041***
(0.033 to 0.050)
24.200.60***
(0.52 to 0.68)
0.008***
(0.004 to 0.012)
5.360.33***
(0.21 to 0.45)
Uganda0.052***
(0.043 to 0.062)
20.260.54***
(0.48 to 0.60)
0.003
(0.000 to 0.006)
0.61***
(0.16 to 1.06)
0.055***
(0.043 to 0.068)
30.640.70***
(0.62 to 0.78)
0.005***
(0.002 to 0.008)
5.430.12*
(0.00 to 0.24)
Gambia0.109***
(0.090 to 0.127)
28.960.54***
(0.42 to 0.67)
0.111***
(0.092 to 0.130)
45.790.56***
(0.44 to 0.68)
Senegal0.171***
(0.156 to 0.187)
12.710.49***
(0.45 to 0.53)
0.018***
(0.012 to 0.024)
40.250.55***
(0.45 to 0.65)
0.053***
(0.043 to 0.162)
21.830.55***
(0.49 to 0.61)
0.052***
(0.043 to 0.061)
12.550.43***
(0.37 to 0.49)
Kenya0.448***
(0.433 to 0.464)
12.440.49***
(0.45 to 0.53)
0.362***
(0.346 to 0.377)
12.340.44***
(0.40 to 0.48)
0.127***
(0.013 to 0.440)
24.380.59***
(0.49 to 0.69)
0.007***
(0.004 to 0.010)
4.090.30**
(0.10 to 0.50)
Togo0.150***
(0.132 to 0.169)
8.240.48***
(0.44 to 0.52)
0.009**
(0.004 to 0.015)
0.69***
(0.45 to 0.93)
0.080***
(0.059 to 0.101)
52.000.72***
(0.64 to 0.80)
(−0.011***
(-0.016 to −0.005)
0.33−0.25***
(−0.39 to −0.11)
Mozambique0.090***
(0.076 to 0.104)
6.990.48***
(0.38 to 0.58)
Congo0.070***
(0.057 to 0.082)
8.660.47***
(0.35 to 0.59)
0.009**
(0.003 to 0.015)
26.670.62**
(0.23 to 1.01)
0.065***
(0.052 to 0.078)
49.080.58***
(0.44 to 0.72)
0.010**
(0.003 to 0.016)
2.170.20*
(0.00 to 0.40)
Comoros0.146***
(0.123 to 0.170)
8.810.45***
(0.33 to 0.57)
0.008*
(0.002 to 0.015)
0.56*
(0.01 to 1.11)
0.076***
(0.058 to 0.194)
6.890.42***
(0.28 to 0.56)
0.057***
(0.042 to 0.073)
9.330.43***
(0.25 to 0.61)
Angola0.103***
(0.090 to 0.116)
10.150.44***
(0.35 to 0.53)
Liberia0.176***
(0.156 to 0.195)
14.680.42***
(0.29 to 0.55)
0.010***
(0.005 to 0.015)
23.000.39
(−0.002 to 0.78)
0.164***
(0.045 to 0.183)
17.410.40***
(0.26 to 0.54)
0.010
(−0.002 to 0.023)
0.72*
(0.07 to 1.37)
Sao Tome and Principe0.046***
(0.026 to 0.066)
6.510.39***
(0.27 to 0.51)
0.006
(−0.002 to 0.014)
3.670.38**
(0.09 to 0.67)
0.038***
(0.019 to 0.058)
7.100.51***
(0.35 to 0.67)
0.003
(−0.005 to 0.010)
6.550.20
(−0.02 to 0.42)
Rwanda0.329***
(0.304 to 0.353)
1.400.34***
(0.03 to 0.38)
0.366***
(0.335 to 0.396)
470.500.73***
(0.65 to 0.81)
0.89***
(0.62 to 1.16)
0.237***
(0.211 to 0.264)
1.290.24***
(0.20 to 0.28)
Tanzania0.130***
(0.114 to 0.146)
3.650.29***
(0.25 to 0.33)
0.016***
(0.009 to 0.022)
4.020.17***
(0.09 to 0.25)
0.138***
(0.019 to 0.157)
52.810.66***
(0.60 to 0.72)
0.013**
(0.003 to 0.024)
1.250.04*
(0.01 to 0.08)
Burundi0.301***
(0.283 to 0.319)
2.910.26***
(0.22 to 0.30)
0.031***
(0.016 to 0.046)
1.230.05**
(−0.34 to 0.44)
0.421***
(0.396 to 0.446)
99.160.74***
(0.64 to 0.84)
Ethiopia0.045***
(0.037 to 0.053)
1.930.10**
(0.04 to 0.16)
0.004**
(0.001 to 0.007)
1.850.11
(−0.03 to 0.25)
0.088***
(0.066 to 0.009)
49.750.76***
(0.58 to 0.94)
−0.004
(0.009 to 0.002)
1.09−0.003
(−0.08 to 0.08)
Ghana0.075***
(0.047 to 0.103)
1.100.07**
(0.03 to 0.11)
0.061***
(0.033 to 0.090)
1.080.06*
(0.02 to 0.10)
0.050***
(0.035 to 0.065)
0.72***
(0.37 to 1.07)
0.001
(−0.001 to 0.003)
0.62
(−0.20 to 1.44)
Gabon−0.214***
(−0.243 to −0.185)
0.880.00
(−0.04 to 0.04)
Overall0.11***
(0.11 to 0.11)
4.440.38***
(0.35 to 0.)
  • ***P<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05.

  • – means data are unavailable or zero value among poorest; Q1 poorest quintile; Q5 richest quintile.

  • SSA, sub-Saharan Africa.