Table 3

Bivariable and multivariable analysis to explore factors associated with antibiotic consumption for ARI episode among children of aged less than 5 years, Bangladesh 2014

Received antibiotic for ARI episode
uOR (95% CI)p-valueaOR (95% CI)p-value
Mother age (year)*
 15–19 (ref)1
 20–241.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.9880.9 (0.7 to 1.3)0.732
 25–291.1 (0.7 to 1.5)0.7770.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.789
 30–341.2 (0.8 to 1.9)0.4321.1 (0.6 to 1.7)0.829
 35–391.3 (0.7 to 2.3)0.3641.0 (0.5 to 1.9)0.959
 40–441.9 (0.8 to 4.6)0.1772.0 (0.7 to 5.8)0.218
45–490.8 (0.2 to 3.1)0.7271.0 (0.3 to 3.9)0.960
Age of father (year)†
 ≤241
 25–290.9 (0.6 to 1.5)0.6820.7 (0.4 to 1.2)0.203
 30–341 (0.6 to 1.5)0.8550.8 (0.5 to 1.3)0.353
 35–391.2 (0.8 to 2)0.3811 (0.6 to 1.7)0.928
 40–441 (0.6 to 1.7)0.9520.7 (0.4 to 1.4)0.352
 45–491.6 (0.8 to 3.1)0.2211.2 (0.6 to 2.4)0.675
 50–541.2 (0.5 to 2.7)0.7010.8 (0.3 to 2)0.617
 ≥551.9 (0.9 to 3.7)0.071.6 (0.7 to 3.7)0.251
Age of child (month)‡
 <6(ref)1
 6–110.8 (0.5 to 1.4)0.4280.8 (0.5 to 1.4)0.531
 12–231.1 (0.6 to 1.8)0.8411.1 (0.7 to 1.9)0.661
 24–351.1 (0.7 to 2.0)0.6621.3 (0.7 to 2.3)0.352
 36–471.3 (0.8 to 2.2)0.2761.4 (0.8 to 2.4)0.189
 48–591.4 (0.6 to 3.1)0.4141.6 (0.8 to 3.2)0.161
Sex§
 Female(ref)1
 Male0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)0.4251.0 (0.7 to 1.3)0.756
Type of place of residence¶
 Urban (ref)1
 Rural1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)0.0051.6 (1.2 to 2.1)0.004
Divisions**
 Barisal (ref)1
 Chittagong0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)0.1610.6 (0.4 to 1.0)0.055
 Dhaka0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)0.5280.9 (0.5 to 1.5)0.621
 Khulna0.7 (0.5 to 1.2)0.2200.7 (0.4 to 1.2)0.161
 Rajshahi0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.6570.8 (0.5 to 1.2)0.250
 Rangpur1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)0.9610.7 (0.4 to 1.2)0.188
 Sylhet1.5 (0.8 to 2.6)0.2051.3 (0.7 to 2.2)0.438
Wealth quintile††
 Poorest (ref)1
 Poorer1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)0.7931.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.556
 Middle1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.9001.0 (0.6 to 1.7)0.869
 Richer0.8 (0.6 to 1.2)0.2690.9 (0.6 to 1.3)0.629
 Richest0.8 (0.5 to 1.1)0.1870.8 (0.5 to 1.3)0.341
Father education‡‡
 No education(ref)1
 Primary1.2 (0.7 to 1.9)0.5581.1 (0.7 to 1.8)0.597
 Secondary0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.7050.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.793
 Higher0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.5360.9 (0.5 to 1.5)0.675
Father occupation§§
 Agriculture (ref)1
 Unskilled and semiskilled worker0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)0.6031.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.978
 Professional work0.9 (0.5 to 1.4)0.6250.9 (0.5 to 1.7)0.855
 Businessmen0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.7331.0 (0.7 to 1.6)0.835
 Other0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)0.2301.0 (0.5 to 2.0)0.987
Mother education¶¶
 No education (ref)1
 Primary1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)0.8071.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.988
 Secondary0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.7910.9 (0.6 to 1.5)0.816
 Higher0.9 (0.5 to 1.5)0.6280.9 (0.5 to 1.7)0.767
Mother occupation***
 Not working (ref)1
 Working1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)0.9020.9 (0.7 to 1.2)0.608
Child nutrition status
Stunted†††
 Well nourished (ref)1
 Moderate1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)0.5761.1 (0.8 to 1.5)0.428
 Severe0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.7531.0 (0.6 to 1.5)0.898
Wasted‡‡‡
 Well nourished (ref)1
 Moderate1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)0.6541.0 (0.7 to 1.5)0.838
 Severe0.5 (0.2 to 0.9)0.0240.5 (0.2 to 1.0)0.037
Underweight§§§
 Well nourished (ref)1
 Moderate1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)0.7851.1 (0.8 to 1.4)0.596
 Severe0.9 (0.5 to 1.5)0.6721.0 (0.5 to 2.0)0.886
Drug prescriber
Healthcare professional /worker¶¶¶
 No (ref)1
 Yes0.9 (0.7 to 1.3)0.6490.9 (0.6 to 1.4)0.756
Unqualified/traditional practitioner****
 No (ref)1
 Yes1.4 (1.0 to 1.8)0.0221.3 (1.0 to 1.8)0.083
Drug sources
Public sector††††
 No (ref)1
 Yes1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)0.1761.2 (0.8 to 1.9)0.344
NGO sector‡‡‡‡
 No (ref)1
 Yes2.4 (0.7 to 7.8)0.1592.1 (0.7 to 6.1)0.188
Private sector§§§§
 No (ref)1
 Yes1.3 (1.0 to 1.8)0.0560.5 (0.3 to 0.7)<0.001
Others¶¶¶¶
 No (ref)1
 Yes5.4 (2.8 to 10.4)<0.0015.3 (2.7 to 10.4)<0.001
  • Bolded Values indicate statistical significance where the p-value is <0.05.

  • *Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, other sector, age of child, place of residence.

  • †Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, other sector, age of child, place of residence.

  • ‡Adjusted for wasted, healthcare professional, unqualified practitioner, other sector.

  • §Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, other sector, age of child, place of residence.

  • ¶Adjusted for wasted, other sector, age of child.

  • **Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, private medical sector, other sector, place of residence.

  • ††Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, private medical sector, other sector, place of residence.

  • ‡‡Adjusted for wasted, age of child, unqualified practitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • §§Adjusted for wasted, age of child, unqualified practitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • ¶¶Adjusted for wasted, age of child, unqualifiedpractitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • ***Adjusted for wasted, age of child, unqualified practitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • †††Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • ‡‡‡Adjusted for unqualified practitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • §§§Adjusted for wasted unqualified practitioner, other sector, place of residence.

  • ¶¶¶Adjusted for public sector, other sector, place of residence.

  • ****Adjusted for public sector, other sector, place of residence.

  • ††††Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, place of residence.

  • ‡‡‡‡Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, place of residence.

  • §§§§Adjusted for wasted, unqualified practitioner, place of residence.

  • ¶¶¶¶Adjusted for wasted, place of residence.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; ARI, acute respiratory infection; NGO, non-governmental organisation; uOR, unadjusted OR.