Table 2

Demographic and sociodemographic characteristics—child malnutrition status—antibiotic prescribers-sources of drug of the children who had symptoms of ARI at any time in the 2 weeks preceding the survey and prevalence of their antibiotic use, BDHS 2014 (N=2144)

CharacteristicsChildren under 5 years of age who had symptoms of ARIChildren of age under 5 years who took antibiotic for symptoms of ARI
No of children who had symptoms of ARIPercentage of children who had symptoms of ARINo of children who received antibioticsPercentage of children who received antibioticsPrevalence of receiving antibiotic95% CIP value
Overall214610082910038.7(35.4 to 42.0)
Age of mother (year)
 Median (IQR: 25th, 75th)24 (21–29)25 (21–30)
 15–1933615.712515.137.1(31.4 to 43.2)0.756
 20–2476235.528334.237.2(32.7 to 41.9)
 25–2954125.220725.038.3(32.7 to 44.3)
 30–3435116.414617.641.5(32.6 to 51.0)
 35–391185.5516.243.6(31.4 to 56.6)
 40–44241.1121.552.4(31.9 to 72.1)
 45–49140.740.531.6(10.3 to 64.8)
Age of father (year)
 Median (IQR: 25th, 75th)32 (28–38)32 (28–39)
 ≤241245.8465.537.0(28.1 to 46.9) 0.181
 25–2951924.218021.734.7(29.6 to 40.3)
 30–3449022.817721.336.0(31.0 to 41.4)
 35–3950223.421225.542.2(35.2 to 49.5)
 40–4426812.510012.137.4(30.9 to 44.3)
 45–491366.3657.847.6(34.0 to 61.7)
 50–54522.4212.640.9(26.7 to 56.7)
 ≥55552.6293.552.5(39.3 to 65.3)
Age of child (months)
 Median (IQR: 25th, 75th)27(13–42)29 (14–43)
 <61788.3647.736.0(26.2 to 47.2)0.254
 6–1130814.39511.531.0(24.3 to 38.5)
 12–2348222.518021.737.3(32.2 to 42.6)
 24–3541419.316119.438.9(33.0 to 45.1)
 36–4740518.917320.842.6(36.5 to 48.9)
 48–5935716.715718.943.9(33.0 to 55.4)
Sex of child
 Male113352.842551.337.5(33.4 to 41.8)0.425
 Female101247.240448.739.9(35.4 to 44.6)
Place of residence
 Urban52024.216319.631.3(26.3 to 36.8)0.006
 Rural162575.866680.441.0(37.2 to 44.9)
Wealth index
 Poorest50223.420324.540.5(34.8 to 46.5)0.459
 Poorer39018.216319.641.6(35.0 to 48.6)
 Middle46621.718622.540.0(33.1 to 47.2)
 Richer41219.214717.835.8(29.9 to 42.1)
 Richest37517.512915.634.5(28.3 to 41.2)
Divisions
 Barisal1386.4576.841.0(33.0 to 49.5)0.070
 Chittagong50623.617120.633.8(28.3 to 39.8)
 Dhaka65730.624729.837.6(31.5 to 44.1)
 Khulna1386.4475.633.8(26.5 to 42.0)
 Rajshahi21610.18310.138.5(32.0 to 45.5)
 Rangpur23210.89411.440.7(34.0 to 47.8)
 Sylhet2581213015.750.4(38.6 to 62.1)
Father education
 No education57226.722126.638.6(31.2 to 46.5)0.547
 Primary65330.527433.142.0(34.9 to 49.5)
 Secondary63729.723528.336.8(32.5 to 41.5)
 Higher28113.19912.035.3(28.8 to 42.5)
Father occupation
 Agriculture5572622427.040.2(34.7 to 45.9)0.868
 Unskilled and semiskilled worker98245.837745.438.4(33.8 to 43.2)
 Professional work1125.2425.037.4(28.2 to 47.5)
 Businessmen44320.717120.638.7(32.6 to 45.1)
 Others502.3161.931.8(21.0 to 45.0)
Mother education
 No education36717.114417.339.2(30.9 to 48.1)0.853
 Primary65030.326231.640.3(34.4 to 46.4)
 Secondary93943.835542.837.8(33.6 to 42.1)
 Higher1908.9698.336.2(28.2 to 45.1)
Mother occupation
 Not working158874.061574.238.7(34.8 to 42.8)0.902
 Working55726.021425.838.4(33.8 to 43.2)
Child malnutrition status
Stunted
 Severe263879812.437.1(28.6 to 46.6)0.746
 Moderate53825421927.940.7(34.6 to 47.0)
 Well Nourished1217167746959.738.5(34.6 to 42.7)
Wasted
 Severe20410.1202.522.7(13.1 to 36.3)0.048
 Moderate52826.110513.441.2(33.9 to 49.0)
 Well Nourished128663.766184.139.4(35.9 to 43.1)
Underweight
 Severe20410.1749.436.2(25.0 to 49.1)0.813
 Moderate52826.121026.739.8(35.0 to 44.9)
 Well Nourished128663.750263.839.0(35.0 to 43.1)
Drug prescribed
 Healthcare professional/worker
 Yes73334.127533.137.5(31.1 to 44.3)0.649
 No141365.955566.939.3(35.7 to 42.9)
 Unqualified/traditional practitioner
 Yes97050.845755.247.1(42.9 to 51.4)0.022
 No93849.237144.839.5(34.0 to 45.2)
Drug sources
 Public sector
 Yes23410.910312.443.9(36.3 to 51.8)0.176
 No191289.172787.638.0(34.5 to 41.7)
 NGO sector
 Yes180.9111.359.6(30.2 to 83.4)0.147
 No212699.181898.738.5(35.4 to 41.7)
 Private sector
 Yes151170.761574.340.7(36.5 to 45.1)0.056
 No62829.321325.733.9(29.1 to 39.1)
 Others
 Yes904.2688.276.0(62.9 to 85.6)<0.001
 No205595.876191.837.0(33.6 to 40.6)
  • Bolded Values indicate statistical significance where the p-value is <0.05.

  • ARIs, acute respiratory infections; BDHS, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey; NGO, non-governmental organisation.