Table 1

List of variables and definitions

Independent variableDefinition
Off-budget delivery >25%*Indicator for proportion of aid that is delivered outside government systems that are greater than 25%
Corruption Perception Index (CPI)†CPI scores measure of the perceived level of corruption in a country’s public sector. Values range from 0 (most corrupt) to 100 (least corrupt)41
Fragile States Index (FSI)‡A measure of the risk of conflict and vulnerabilities faced by individual nations. Values range from 0 (least fragile) to 120 (most fragile)42
Proportion of public DAHThe proportion of DAH in a country-year that is from public sources
In-Kind DAH >15%*Indicator for DAH administrative expenses values that are greater than 15%
Gross domestic productLogged GDP per capita for each country-year (GDPpc)
Proportion of DAH allocated to health systems strengtheningThe proportion of DAH in a country-year that is allocated to health systems strengthening projects (DAH_HSS)
Proportion of DAH from non-governmental sourcesThe proportion of DAH in a country-year that is from non-governmental sources
GBD super-region (reference: Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia)Countries were classified as belonging to one of 7 super regions as per the Global Burden of Disease Study15
Income levelCountries were classified as belonging to one of the four income levels as designated by the World Bank43
  • *The threshold for off-budget delivery were chosen to be 25% as most NHA expenditure data had between 0% and 25% allocated as off-budget. Similarly, the threshold for administrative expenses (in-kind) was chosen to be 15% as most DAH in this dataset had between 0% and 15% allocated as administrative expenses.

  • †CPI scores are published by Transparency International.

  • ‡FSI composite scores used here are published by the Fund For Peace.